在Oracle Linux 7.1中使用源码来安装PostgreSQL 9.6

在Oracle Linux 7.1中使用源码来安装PostgreSQL 9.6
编译PostgreSQL需要下列软件包:
1.GUN make版本3.80或新的要求。

[root@cs1 /]# make --version
GNU Make 3.82
Built for x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu
Copyright (C) 2010  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later 
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

2.需要一个ISO/ANSI C 编译器(至少是 C89兼容的)。我们推荐使用最近版本的GCC

[root@cs1 /]# gcc --version
gcc (GCC) 4.8.3 20140911 (Red Hat 4.8.3-9)
Copyright (C) 2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
本程序是自由软件;请参看源代码的版权声明。本软件没有任何担保;
包括没有适销性和某一专用目的下的适用性担保。

3.除了gzip和bzip2之外,我们还需要tar来解包源代码发布。

4.GNU Readline库

[root@cs1 /]# rpm -aq | grep readline
readline-6.2-9.el7.x86_64
[root@cs1 /]# rpm -aq | grep readline-deve
readline-devel-6.2-9.el7.x86_64
[root@cs1 /]# rpm -aq | grep libedit
libedit-3.0-12.20121213cvs.el7.x86_64

5.可选工具包在默认配置的时候并不要求它们,但是如果打开了一些编译选项之后就需要它们了

perl 5.8 or later
python
Kerberos
OpenSSL
OpenLDAP and/or PAM
Flex 2.5.31 or later
Bison 1.875 or later

6.创建用户与组

[root@cs1 local]# groupadd pgsql
[root@cs1 local]# useradd -g pgsql pgsql

7.下载源码包postgresql-9.6.6.tar.gz并上传到服务器并解压

[root@cs1 local]# gunzip  mariadb-10.0.38-linux-glibc_214-x86_64

创建一个软链接

[root@cs1 local]# ln -s postgresql-9.6.6 pgsql
[root@cs1 local]# ls -lrt
总用量 8
drwxr-xr-x.  2 root  root     6 5月   8 2014 src
drwxr-xr-x.  2 root  root     6 5月   8 2014 sbin
drwxr-xr-x.  2 root  root     6 5月   8 2014 libexec
drwxr-xr-x.  2 root  root     6 5月   8 2014 lib64
drwxr-xr-x.  2 root  root     6 5月   8 2014 lib
drwxr-xr-x.  2 root  root     6 5月   8 2014 include
drwxr-xr-x.  2 root  root     6 5月   8 2014 games
drwxr-xr-x.  2 root  root     6 5月   8 2014 etc
drwxr-xr-x.  5 root  root    46 10月 12 2017 share
drwxrwxrwx   6 pgsql pgsql 4096 11月  7 2017 postgresql-9.6.6
drwxr-xr-x.  2 root  root    46 3月   9 2018 bin
drwxrwxr-x  13 root  mysql 4096 1月  31 02:40 mariadb-10.0.38-linux-glibc_214-x86_64
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root  root    38 6月   4 14:43 mysql -> mariadb-10.0.38-linux-glibc_214-x86_64
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root  root    16 6月   4 21:24 pgsql -> postgresql-9.6.6

8.安装

root@cs1 local]# cd pgsql

8.1安装过程的第一步就是为你的系统配置源代码树并选择你喜欢的选项。这个工作是通过运行configure脚本实现的,对于默认安装,你只需要简单地输入:

[root@cs1 pgsql]# ./configure
checking build system type... x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
checking host system type... x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
checking which template to use... linux
checking whether to build with 64-bit integer date/time support... yes
checking whether NLS is wanted... no
checking for default port number... 5432
checking for block size... 8kB
checking for segment size... 1GB
checking for WAL block size... 8kB
checking for WAL segment size... 16MB
checking for gcc... gcc
checking whether the C compiler works... yes
checking for C compiler default output file name... a.out
checking for suffix of executables... 
checking whether we are cross compiling... no
checking for suffix of object files... o
checking whether we are using the GNU C compiler... yes
checking whether gcc accepts -g... yes
checking for gcc option to accept ISO C89... none needed
checking whether gcc supports -Wdeclaration-after-statement... yes
checking whether gcc supports -Wendif-labels... yes
checking whether gcc supports -Wmissing-format-attribute... yes
checking whether gcc supports -Wformat-security... yes
checking whether gcc supports -fno-strict-aliasing... yes
checking whether gcc supports -fwrapv... yes
checking whether gcc supports -fexcess-precision=standard... yes
checking whether gcc supports -funroll-loops... yes
checking whether gcc supports -ftree-vectorize... yes
checking whether gcc supports -Wunused-command-line-argument... no
checking whether the C compiler still works... yes
checking how to run the C preprocessor... gcc -E
checking allow thread-safe client libraries... yes
checking whether to build with Tcl... no
checking whether to build Perl modules... no
checking whether to build Python modules... no
checking whether to build with GSSAPI support... no
checking whether to build with PAM support... no
checking whether to build with BSD Authentication support... no
checking whether to build with LDAP support... no
checking whether to build with Bonjour support... no
checking whether to build with OpenSSL support... no
checking whether to build with SELinux support... no
checking whether to build with systemd support... no
checking for grep that handles long lines and -e... /usr/bin/grep
checking for egrep... /usr/bin/grep -E
checking for ld used by GCC... /usr/bin/ld
checking if the linker (/usr/bin/ld) is GNU ld... yes
checking for ranlib... ranlib
checking for strip... strip
checking whether it is possible to strip libraries... yes
checking for ar... ar
checking for a BSD-compatible install... /usr/bin/install -c
checking for tar... /usr/bin/tar
checking whether ln -s works... yes
checking for gawk... gawk
checking for a thread-safe mkdir -p... /usr/bin/mkdir -p
checking for bison... /usr/bin/bison
configure: using bison (GNU Bison) 2.7
checking for flex... /usr/bin/flex
configure: using flex 2.5.37
checking for perl... /usr/bin/perl
configure: using perl 5.16.3
checking for ANSI C header files... yes
checking for sys/types.h... yes
checking for sys/stat.h... yes
checking for stdlib.h... yes
checking for string.h... yes
checking for memory.h... yes
checking for strings.h... yes
checking for inttypes.h... yes
checking for stdint.h... yes
checking for unistd.h... yes
checking if compiler needs certain flags to reject unknown flags... no
checking for the pthreads library -lpthreads... no
checking whether pthreads work without any flags... no
checking whether pthreads work with -Kthread... no
checking whether pthreads work with -kthread... no
checking for the pthreads library -llthread... no
checking whether pthreads work with -pthread... yes
checking for joinable pthread attribute... PTHREAD_CREATE_JOINABLE
checking if more special flags are required for pthreads... no
checking for PTHREAD_PRIO_INHERIT... yes
checking pthread.h usability... yes
checking pthread.h presence... yes
checking for pthread.h... yes
checking for strerror_r... yes
checking for getpwuid_r... yes
checking for gethostbyname_r... yes
checking whether strerror_r returns int... no
checking for main in -lm... yes
checking for library containing setproctitle... no
checking for library containing dlopen... -ldl
checking for library containing socket... none required
checking for library containing shl_load... no
checking for library containing getopt_long... none required
checking for library containing crypt... -lcrypt
checking for library containing shm_open... -lrt
checking for library containing shm_unlink... none required
checking for library containing fdatasync... none required
checking for library containing sched_yield... none required
checking for library containing gethostbyname_r... none required
checking for library containing shmget... none required
checking for library containing readline... -lreadline
checking for inflate in -lz... yes
checking atomic.h usability... no
checking atomic.h presence... no
checking for atomic.h... no
checking crypt.h usability... yes
checking crypt.h presence... yes
checking for crypt.h... yes
checking dld.h usability... no
checking dld.h presence... no
checking for dld.h... no
checking fp_class.h usability... no
checking fp_class.h presence... no
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checking getopt.h usability... yes
checking getopt.h presence... yes
checking for getopt.h... yes
checking ieeefp.h usability... no
checking ieeefp.h presence... no
checking for ieeefp.h... no
checking ifaddrs.h usability... yes
checking ifaddrs.h presence... yes
checking for ifaddrs.h... yes
checking langinfo.h usability... yes
checking langinfo.h presence... yes
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checking mbarrier.h usability... no
checking mbarrier.h presence... no
checking for mbarrier.h... no
checking poll.h usability... yes
checking poll.h presence... yes
checking for poll.h... yes
checking pwd.h usability... yes
checking pwd.h presence... yes
checking for pwd.h... yes
checking sys/epoll.h usability... yes
checking sys/epoll.h presence... yes
checking for sys/epoll.h... yes
checking sys/ioctl.h usability... yes
checking sys/ioctl.h presence... yes
checking for sys/ioctl.h... yes
checking sys/ipc.h usability... yes
checking sys/ipc.h presence... yes
checking for sys/ipc.h... yes
checking sys/poll.h usability... yes
checking sys/poll.h presence... yes
checking for sys/poll.h... yes
checking sys/pstat.h usability... no
checking sys/pstat.h presence... no
checking for sys/pstat.h... no
checking sys/resource.h usability... yes
checking sys/resource.h presence... yes
checking for sys/resource.h... yes
checking sys/select.h usability... yes
checking sys/select.h presence... yes
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checking sys/sem.h usability... yes
checking sys/sem.h presence... yes
checking for sys/sem.h... yes
checking sys/shm.h usability... yes
checking sys/shm.h presence... yes
checking for sys/shm.h... yes
checking sys/socket.h usability... yes
checking sys/socket.h presence... yes
checking for sys/socket.h... yes
checking sys/sockio.h usability... no
checking sys/sockio.h presence... no
checking for sys/sockio.h... no
checking sys/tas.h usability... no
checking sys/tas.h presence... no
checking for sys/tas.h... no
checking sys/time.h usability... yes
checking sys/time.h presence... yes
checking for sys/time.h... yes
checking sys/un.h usability... yes
checking sys/un.h presence... yes
checking for sys/un.h... yes
checking termios.h usability... yes
checking termios.h presence... yes
checking for termios.h... yes
checking ucred.h usability... no
checking ucred.h presence... no
checking for ucred.h... no
checking utime.h usability... yes
checking utime.h presence... yes
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checking wchar.h usability... yes
checking wchar.h presence... yes
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checking wctype.h usability... yes
checking wctype.h presence... yes
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checking for net/if.h... yes
checking for sys/ucred.h... no
checking netinet/in.h usability... yes
checking netinet/in.h presence... yes
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checking for netinet/tcp.h... yes
checking readline/readline.h usability... yes
checking readline/readline.h presence... yes
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checking readline/history.h usability... yes
checking readline/history.h presence... yes
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checking zlib.h usability... yes
checking zlib.h presence... yes
checking for zlib.h... yes
checking whether byte ordering is bigendian... no
checking for inline... inline
checking for printf format archetype... gnu_printf
checking for flexible array members... yes
checking for signed types... yes
checking for __func__... yes
checking for _Static_assert... yes
checking for __builtin_types_compatible_p... yes
checking for __builtin_bswap32... yes
checking for __builtin_bswap64... yes
checking for __builtin_constant_p... yes
checking for __builtin_unreachable... yes
checking for __VA_ARGS__... yes
checking whether struct tm is in sys/time.h or time.h... time.h
checking for struct tm.tm_zone... yes
checking for tzname... yes
checking for union semun... no
checking for struct sockaddr_un... yes
checking for struct sockaddr_storage... yes
checking for struct sockaddr_storage.ss_family... yes
checking for struct sockaddr_storage.__ss_family... no
checking for struct sockaddr_storage.ss_len... no
checking for struct sockaddr_storage.__ss_len... no
checking for struct sockaddr.sa_len... no
checking for struct addrinfo... yes
checking for intptr_t... yes
checking for uintptr_t... yes
checking for unsigned long long int... yes
checking for long long int... yes
checking for locale_t... yes
checking for struct cmsgcred... no
checking for struct option... yes
checking for z_streamp... yes
checking for special C compiler options needed for large files... no
checking for _FILE_OFFSET_BITS value needed for large files... no
checking size of off_t... 8
checking for int timezone... yes
checking types of arguments for accept()... int, int, struct sockaddr *, socklen_t *
checking whether gettimeofday takes only one argument... no
checking for wcstombs_l declaration... no
checking for cbrt... yes
checking for dlopen... yes
checking for fdatasync... yes
checking for getifaddrs... yes
checking for getpeerucred... no
checking for getrlimit... yes
checking for mbstowcs_l... no
checking for memmove... yes
checking for poll... yes
checking for posix_fallocate... yes
checking for pstat... no
checking for pthread_is_threaded_np... no
checking for readlink... yes
checking for setproctitle... no
checking for setsid... yes
checking for shm_open... yes
checking for symlink... yes
checking for sync_file_range... yes
checking for towlower... yes
checking for utime... yes
checking for utimes... yes
checking for wcstombs... yes
checking for wcstombs_l... no
checking for fseeko... yes
checking for _LARGEFILE_SOURCE value needed for large files... no
checking for posix_fadvise... yes
checking whether posix_fadvise is declared... yes
checking whether fdatasync is declared... yes
checking whether strlcat is declared... no
checking whether strlcpy is declared... no
checking whether F_FULLFSYNC is declared... no
checking for struct sockaddr_in6... yes
checking for PS_STRINGS... no
checking for snprintf... yes
checking for vsnprintf... yes
checking whether snprintf is declared... yes
checking whether vsnprintf is declared... yes
checking for isinf... yes
checking for crypt... yes
checking for fls... no
checking for getopt... yes
checking for getrusage... yes
checking for inet_aton... yes
checking for mkdtemp... yes
checking for random... yes
checking for rint... yes
checking for srandom... yes
checking for strerror... yes
checking for strlcat... no
checking for strlcpy... no
checking for unsetenv... yes
checking for getpeereid... no
checking for getaddrinfo... yes
checking for getopt_long... yes
checking whether sys_siglist is declared... yes
checking for syslog... yes
checking syslog.h usability... yes
checking syslog.h presence... yes
checking for syslog.h... yes
checking for opterr... yes
checking for optreset... no
checking for strtoll... yes
checking for strtoull... yes
checking for rl_completion_append_character... yes
checking for rl_completion_matches... yes
checking for rl_filename_completion_function... yes
checking for rl_reset_screen_size... yes
checking for append_history... yes
checking for history_truncate_file... yes
checking test program... ok
checking whether long int is 64 bits... yes
checking whether snprintf supports the %z modifier... yes
checking size of void *... 8
checking size of size_t... 8
checking size of long... 8
checking whether to build with float4 passed by value... yes
checking whether to build with float8 passed by value... yes
checking alignment of short... 2
checking alignment of int... 4
checking alignment of long... 8
checking alignment of double... 8
checking for int8... no
checking for uint8... no
checking for int64... no
checking for uint64... no
checking for __int128... yes
checking for builtin __sync char locking functions... yes
checking for builtin __sync int32 locking functions... yes
checking for builtin __sync int32 atomic operations... yes
checking for builtin __sync int64 atomic operations... yes
checking for builtin __atomic int32 atomic operations... yes
checking for builtin __atomic int64 atomic operations... yes
checking for __get_cpuid... yes
checking for __cpuid... no
checking for _mm_crc32_u8 and _mm_crc32_u32 with CFLAGS=... no
checking for _mm_crc32_u8 and _mm_crc32_u32 with CFLAGS=-msse4.2... yes
checking which CRC-32C implementation to use... SSE 4.2 with runtime check
checking for onsgmls... no
checking for nsgmls... no
checking for openjade... no
checking for jade... no
checking for DocBook V4.2... no
checking for DocBook stylesheets... no
checking for collateindex.pl... no
checking for dbtoepub... no
checking for xmllint... xmllint
checking for xsltproc... xsltproc
checking for osx... no
checking for sgml2xml... no
checking for sx... sx
checking thread safety of required library functions... yes
checking whether gcc supports -Wl,--as-needed... yes
configure: using compiler=gcc (GCC) 4.8.3 20140911 (Red Hat 4.8.3-9)
configure: using CFLAGS=-Wall -Wmissing-prototypes -Wpointer-arith -Wdeclaration-after-statement -Wendif-labels -Wmissing-format-attribute -Wformat-security -fno-strict-aliasing -fwrapv -fexcess-precision=standard -O2
configure: using CPPFLAGS= -D_GNU_SOURCE 
configure: using LDFLAGS=  -Wl,--as-needed
configure: creating ./config.status
config.status: creating GNUmakefile
config.status: creating src/Makefile.global
config.status: creating src/include/pg_config.h
config.status: creating src/include/pg_config_ext.h
config.status: creating src/interfaces/ecpg/include/ecpg_config.h
config.status: linking src/backend/port/tas/dummy.s to src/backend/port/tas.s
config.status: linking src/backend/port/dynloader/linux.c to src/backend/port/dynloader.c
config.status: linking src/backend/port/sysv_sema.c to src/backend/port/pg_sema.c
config.status: linking src/backend/port/sysv_shmem.c to src/backend/port/pg_shmem.c
config.status: linking src/backend/port/dynloader/linux.h to src/include/dynloader.h
config.status: linking src/include/port/linux.h to src/include/pg_config_os.h
config.status: linking src/makefiles/Makefile.linux to src/Makefile.port

默认安装目录/usr/local/pgsql,可以使用–prefix=path进行修改,./configure –help

8.2 编译
要开始编译,键入:

root@cs1 local]# make

(一定要记得用GNU make)。依你的硬件而异,编译过程可能需要 5 分钟到半小时。显示的最后一行应该是:

All of PostgreSQL successfully made. Ready to install.

如果你希望编译所有能编译的东西,包括文档(HTML和手册页)以及附加模块(contrib),这样键入:

[root@cs1 pgsql]# make world
.....省略.....
make[2]: 离开目录“/usr/local/postgresql-9.6.6/contrib/vacuumlo”
make[1]: 离开目录“/usr/local/postgresql-9.6.6/contrib”
PostgreSQL, contrib, and documentation successfully made. Ready to install.

8.3安装文件
要安装PostgreSQL,输入:

make install

这条命令将把文件安装到在步骤 1中指定的目录。确保你有足够的权限向该区域写入。通常你需要用 root 权限做这一步。或者你也可以事先创建目标目录并且分派合适的权限。

要安装文档(HTML和手册页),输入:

make install-docs

如果你按照上面的方法编译了所有东西,输入:

make install-world

这也会安装文档。

[root@cs1 pgsql]# make install-world
......省略....
make[2]: 离开目录“/usr/local/postgresql-9.6.6/contrib/vacuumlo”
make[1]: 离开目录“/usr/local/postgresql-9.6.6/contrib”
PostgreSQL, contrib, and documentation installation complete.

9.设置环境变量
创建目录/usr/local/pgsql/data用来存放数据

[root@cs1 pgsql]# mkdir /usr/local/pgsql/data
[root@cs1 pgsql]# chown pgsql:pgsql data

[root@cs1 pgsql]# su - pgsql
[pgsql@cs1 ~]$ vi .bash_profile
# .bash_profile

# Get the aliases and functions
if [ -f ~/.bashrc ]; then
        . ~/.bashrc
fi

# User specific environment and startup programs

PATH=$PATH:$HOME/.local/bin:$HOME/bin

export PATH
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/pgsql/lib
export PG_HOME=/usr/local/pgsql
export PATH=$PG_HOME/bin/:$PATH
export PGDATA=/usr/local/pgsql/data

10.初始化数据库
使用pgsql用户来执行

[pgsql@cs1 ~]$ initdb --help
initdb initializes a PostgreSQL database cluster.

Usage:
  initdb [OPTION]... [DATADIR]

Options:
  -A, --auth=METHOD         default authentication method for local connections
      --auth-host=METHOD    default authentication method for local TCP/IP connections
      --auth-local=METHOD   default authentication method for local-socket connections
 [-D, --pgdata=]DATADIR     location for this database cluster
  -E, --encoding=ENCODING   set default encoding for new databases
      --locale=LOCALE       set default locale for new databases
      --lc-collate=, --lc-ctype=, --lc-messages=LOCALE
      --lc-monetary=, --lc-numeric=, --lc-time=LOCALE
                            set default locale in the respective category for
                            new databases (default taken from environment)
      --no-locale           equivalent to --locale=C
      --pwfile=FILE         read password for the new superuser from file
  -T, --text-search-config=CFG
                            default text search configuration
  -U, --username=NAME       database superuser name
  -W, --pwprompt            prompt for a password for the new superuser
  -X, --xlogdir=XLOGDIR     location for the transaction log directory

Less commonly used options:
  -d, --debug               generate lots of debugging output
  -k, --data-checksums      use data page checksums
  -L DIRECTORY              where to find the input files
  -n, --noclean             do not clean up after errors
  -N, --nosync              do not wait for changes to be written safely to disk
  -s, --show                show internal settings
  -S, --sync-only           only sync data directory

Other options:
  -V, --version             output version information, then exit
  -?, --help                show this help, then exit

If the data directory is not specified, the environment variable PGDATA
is used.

Report bugs to .
[pgsql@cs1 ~]$ initdb -D /usr/local/pgsql/data
The files belonging to this database system will be owned by user "pgsql".
This user must also own the server process.

The database cluster will be initialized with locale "zh_CN.gb2312".
The default database encoding has accordingly been set to "EUC_CN".
initdb: could not find suitable text search configuration for locale "zh_CN.gb2312"
The default text search configuration will be set to "simple".

Data page checksums are disabled.

fixing permissions on existing directory /usr/local/pgsql/data ... ok
creating subdirectories ... ok
selecting default max_connections ... 100
selecting default shared_buffers ... 128MB
selecting dynamic shared memory implementation ... posix
creating configuration files ... ok
running bootstrap script ... ok
performing post-bootstrap initialization ... ok
syncing data to disk ... ok

WARNING: enabling "trust" authentication for local connections
You can change this by editing pg_hba.conf or using the option -A, or
--auth-local and --auth-host, the next time you run initdb.

Success. You can now start the database server using:

    pg_ctl -D /usr/local/pgsql/data -l logfile start

同时在pgsql的目录可以看到生成的数据目录data以及该目录的相关数据和配置文件:

[root@cs1 soft]# cd /usr/local/pgsql
[root@cs1 pgsql]# ls -lrt
总用量 1080
-rw-r--r--  1 pgsql pgsql   1212 11月  7 2017 README
-rw-r--r--  1 pgsql pgsql   1529 11月  7 2017 Makefile
-rw-r--r--  1 pgsql pgsql    284 11月  7 2017 HISTORY
-rw-r--r--  1 pgsql pgsql   3638 11月  7 2017 GNUmakefile.in
-rw-r--r--  1 pgsql pgsql   1192 11月  7 2017 COPYRIGHT
-rw-r--r--  1 pgsql pgsql  74867 11月  7 2017 configure.in
-rwxr-xr-x  1 pgsql pgsql 471555 11月  7 2017 configure
-rw-r--r--  1 pgsql pgsql    384 11月  7 2017 aclocal.m4
drwxrwxrwx 55 pgsql pgsql   4096 11月  7 2017 contrib
drwxrwxrwx  2 pgsql pgsql   4096 11月  7 2017 config
drwxrwxrwx  3 pgsql pgsql    101 11月  7 2017 doc
-rw-r--r--  1 pgsql pgsql  76016 11月  7 2017 INSTALL
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root  root   39264 6月   4 21:29 config.status
-rw-r--r--  1 root  root    3638 6月   4 21:29 GNUmakefile
drwxrwxrwx 16 pgsql pgsql   4096 6月   4 21:29 src
-rw-r--r--  1 root  root  370213 6月   4 21:29 config.log
drwxr-xr-x  4 root  root      26 6月   4 21:43 tmp_install
drwxr-xr-x  6 root  root    4096 6月   4 21:45 include
drwxr-xr-x  8 root  root    4096 6月   4 21:45 share
drwxr-xr-x  4 root  root    4096 6月   4 21:45 lib
drwxr-xr-x  2 root  root    4096 6月   4 21:45 bin
drwx------ 19 pgsql pgsql   4096 6月   4 21:56 data
[root@cs1 pgsql]# cd data
[root@cs1 data]# ls -lrt
总用量 48
drwx------ 2 pgsql pgsql     6 6月   4 21:56 pg_twophase
drwx------ 2 pgsql pgsql     6 6月   4 21:56 pg_snapshots
drwx------ 2 pgsql pgsql     6 6月   4 21:56 pg_serial
drwx------ 2 pgsql pgsql     6 6月   4 21:56 pg_replslot
drwx------ 4 pgsql pgsql    34 6月   4 21:56 pg_multixact
drwx------ 2 pgsql pgsql     6 6月   4 21:56 pg_dynshmem
drwx------ 2 pgsql pgsql     6 6月   4 21:56 pg_commit_ts
-rw------- 1 pgsql pgsql     4 6月   4 21:56 PG_VERSION
drwx------ 2 pgsql pgsql     6 6月   4 21:56 pg_tblspc
drwx------ 2 pgsql pgsql     6 6月   4 21:56 pg_stat_tmp
drwx------ 2 pgsql pgsql     6 6月   4 21:56 pg_stat
drwx------ 4 pgsql pgsql    37 6月   4 21:56 pg_logical
-rw------- 1 pgsql pgsql 22304 6月   4 21:56 postgresql.conf
-rw------- 1 pgsql pgsql    88 6月   4 21:56 postgresql.auto.conf
-rw------- 1 pgsql pgsql  1636 6月   4 21:56 pg_ident.conf
-rw------- 1 pgsql pgsql  4459 6月   4 21:56 pg_hba.conf
drwx------ 3 pgsql pgsql    58 6月   4 21:56 pg_xlog
drwx------ 2 pgsql pgsql    17 6月   4 21:56 pg_subtrans
drwx------ 2 pgsql pgsql    17 6月   4 21:56 pg_clog
drwx------ 2 pgsql pgsql    17 6月   4 21:56 pg_notify
drwx------ 2 pgsql pgsql  4096 6月   4 21:56 global
drwx------ 5 pgsql pgsql    38 6月   4 21:56 base

11.启动数据库
在初始化数据库结束后看到了启动命令:

Success. You can now start the database server using:

    pg_ctl -D /usr/local/pgsql/data -l logfile start
[pgsql@cs1 ~]$ echo $PGDATA
/usr/local/pgsql/data

由于我们设置了环境变量,所以已经指定了数据目录PGDATA, -l表示日志文件目录,通常需要指定,所以我们在/usr/local/pgsql根目录下再创建一个log目录用来存放日志文件(注意别忘记赋予可写的权限)

[root@cs1 pgsql]# chown -R pgsql:pgsql log
[root@cs1 pgsql]# chmod -R 775 log
[root@cs1 pgsql]# ls -lrt
总用量 1080
-rw-r--r--  1 pgsql pgsql   1212 11月  7 2017 README
-rw-r--r--  1 pgsql pgsql   1529 11月  7 2017 Makefile
-rw-r--r--  1 pgsql pgsql    284 11月  7 2017 HISTORY
-rw-r--r--  1 pgsql pgsql   3638 11月  7 2017 GNUmakefile.in
-rw-r--r--  1 pgsql pgsql   1192 11月  7 2017 COPYRIGHT
-rw-r--r--  1 pgsql pgsql  74867 11月  7 2017 configure.in
-rwxr-xr-x  1 pgsql pgsql 471555 11月  7 2017 configure
-rw-r--r--  1 pgsql pgsql    384 11月  7 2017 aclocal.m4
drwxrwxrwx 55 pgsql pgsql   4096 11月  7 2017 contrib
drwxrwxrwx  2 pgsql pgsql   4096 11月  7 2017 config
drwxrwxrwx  3 pgsql pgsql    101 11月  7 2017 doc
-rw-r--r--  1 pgsql pgsql  76016 11月  7 2017 INSTALL
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root  root   39264 6月   4 21:29 config.status
-rw-r--r--  1 root  root    3638 6月   4 21:29 GNUmakefile
drwxrwxrwx 16 pgsql pgsql   4096 6月   4 21:29 src
-rw-r--r--  1 root  root  370213 6月   4 21:29 config.log
drwxr-xr-x  4 root  root      26 6月   4 21:43 tmp_install
drwxr-xr-x  6 root  root    4096 6月   4 21:45 include
drwxr-xr-x  8 root  root    4096 6月   4 21:45 share
drwxr-xr-x  4 root  root    4096 6月   4 21:45 lib
drwxr-xr-x  2 root  root    4096 6月   4 21:45 bin
drwx------ 19 pgsql pgsql   4096 6月   4 21:56 data
drwxrwxr-x  2 pgsql pgsql      6 6月   4 22:04 log

运行pg_ctl start -l /usr/local/pgsql/log/pg_server.log即可启动数据库

[pgsql@cs1 ~]$ pg_ctl start -l /usr/local/pgsql/log/pg_server.log
server starting

通过ps -ef|grep postgres查看一下postgres相关是否存在相关进程

[root@cs1 log]# ps -ef|grep postgres
pgsql     4977     1  0 22:05 pts/3    00:00:00 /usr/local/postgresql-9.6.6/bin/postgres
pgsql     4980  4977  0 22:05 ?        00:00:00 postgres: checkpointer process   
pgsql     4981  4977  0 22:05 ?        00:00:00 postgres: writer process   
pgsql     4982  4977  0 22:05 ?        00:00:00 postgres: wal writer process   
pgsql     4983  4977  0 22:05 ?        00:00:00 postgres: autovacuum launcher process   
pgsql     4984  4977  0 22:05 ?        00:00:00 postgres: stats collector process   
root      5145 15622  0 22:06 pts/4    00:00:00 grep --color=auto postgres

从数据库日志文件可以看到如下信息:

[root@cs1 log]# tail -f pg_server.log 
LOG:  database system was shut down at 2019-06-04 21:56:12 CST
LOG:  MultiXact member wraparound protections are now enabled
LOG:  database system is ready to accept connections
LOG:  autovacuum launcher started

12.连接数据库

[pgsql@cs1 ~]$ psql --list
                               List of databases
   Name    | Owner | Encoding |   Collate    |    Ctype     | Access privileges 
-----------+-------+----------+--------------+--------------+-------------------
 postgres  | pgsql | EUC_CN   | zh_CN.gb2312 | zh_CN.gb2312 | 
 template0 | pgsql | EUC_CN   | zh_CN.gb2312 | zh_CN.gb2312 | =c/pgsql         +
           |       |          |              |              | pgsql=CTc/pgsql
 template1 | pgsql | EUC_CN   | zh_CN.gb2312 | zh_CN.gb2312 | =c/pgsql         +
           |       |          |              |              | pgsql=CTc/pgsql
(3 rows)

启动成功后我们就可以通过postgresql自带的客户端工具psql来进行连接,直接输入psql看到版本信息则说明连接成功:

[pgsql@cs1 ~]$ psql postgres
psql (9.6.6)
Type "help" for help.

postgres=# 

接下来要做的第一件事就是设置postgres用户的密码(默认为空),用psql连接成功后直接输入\password即会提示输入两次密码

[pgsql@cs1 ~]$ psql postgres
psql (9.6.6)
Type "help" for help.

postgres=# \password
Enter new password: 
Enter it again: 
postgres=# \l
                               List of databases
   Name    | Owner | Encoding |   Collate    |    Ctype     | Access privileges 
-----------+-------+----------+--------------+--------------+-------------------
 postgres  | pgsql | EUC_CN   | zh_CN.gb2312 | zh_CN.gb2312 | 
 template0 | pgsql | EUC_CN   | zh_CN.gb2312 | zh_CN.gb2312 | =c/pgsql         +
           |       |          |              |              | pgsql=CTc/pgsql
 template1 | pgsql | EUC_CN   | zh_CN.gb2312 | zh_CN.gb2312 | =c/pgsql         +
           |       |          |              |              | pgsql=CTc/pgsql
(3 rows)


postgres=# \l
                               List of databases
   Name    | Owner | Encoding |   Collate    |    Ctype     | Access privileges 
-----------+-------+----------+--------------+--------------+-------------------
 postgres  | pgsql | EUC_CN   | zh_CN.gb2312 | zh_CN.gb2312 | 
 template0 | pgsql | EUC_CN   | zh_CN.gb2312 | zh_CN.gb2312 | =c/pgsql         +
           |       |          |              |              | pgsql=CTc/pgsql
 template1 | pgsql | EUC_CN   | zh_CN.gb2312 | zh_CN.gb2312 | =c/pgsql         +
           |       |          |              |              | pgsql=CTc/pgsql
(3 rows)

postgres=# select version();
                                                 version                                                 
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 PostgreSQL 9.6.6 on x86_64-pc-linux-gnu, compiled by gcc (GCC) 4.8.3 20140911 (Red Hat 4.8.3-9), 64-bit
(1 row)

postgres=# select current_date;
    date    
------------
 2019-06-04
(1 row)

postgres=# 

到此使用源码来安装pg数据库就完成了。

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