Oracle sharding database

Sharding架构是数据库层面的一种分片技术,可以使分过区的数据分布在各不相同的独立数据库里。Sharding是Oracle Database 12c Release 2的新特性,它能为适合于 Sharding技术的OLTP应用提供线性扩展和完全错误隔离的能力,q 我们可以将 Sharding简单地理解为Oracle 表分区技术的扩展,下面将详细描述安装操作。

1.Oracle Sharding 安装条件
12.2企业版
non-cdb
使用文件系统而非ASM (12.2 Beta要求,正式发行后,可能会改)
主机hosts文件写上本机和各个shard node的IP解析
机器必须全新,不能残留之前有安装过oracle的信息。

2.设置环境变量,创建相关目录与设置内核参数
shardcat和gds都安装在一个主机上,同一个oracle用户,不同ORACLE_HOME。

[oracle12c@sdb1 ~]$ cat .bash_profile
# .bash_profile
 
# Get the aliases and functions
if [ -f ~/.bashrc ]; then
        . ~/.bashrc
fi
 
# User specific environment and startup programs
 
PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin
 
export PATH
 
# Oracle Settings
TMP=/tmp; export TMP
TMPDIR=$TMP; export TMPDIR
 
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/ora12c/app/oracle; export ORACLE_BASE
DB_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/product/12.2.0/db_1; export DB_HOME
GSM_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/product/12.2.0/gsm; export GSM_HOME
ORACLE_HOME=$DB_HOME; export ORACLE_HOME
ORACLE_SID=shardcat; export ORACLE_SID
ORACLE_TERM=xterm; export ORACLE_TERM
BASE_PATH=/usr/sbin:$PATH; export BASE_PATH
PATH=/usr/sbin:$PATH; export PATH
PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH:$ORACLE_HOME/OPatch; export PATH
 
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
CLASSPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/JRE:$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib; export CLASSPATH
#LD_ASSUME_KERNEL=2.4.1; export LD_ASSUME_KERNEL

[root@shard1 ~]# groupadd -g 1009 dba
[root@shard1 ~]# groupadd -g 1010 oper
[root@shard1 ~]# groupadd -g 1011 oinstall
[root@shard1 ~]# useradd -u 1001 -g oinstall -G dba,oper oracle
[root@shard1 ~]# passwd oracle
Changing password for user oracle.
New password: 
BAD PASSWORD: The password is shorter than 8 characters
Retype new password: 
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.
[root@shard1 ~]# mkdir -p /u01/app/oraInventory
[root@shard1 ~]# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oraInventory
[root@shard1 ~]# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oraInventory
[root@shard1 ~]# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle
[root@shard1 ~]# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
[root@shard1 ~]# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oracle
[root@shard1 ~]# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db
[root@shard1 ~]# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db
[root@shard1 ~]# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db
[root@shard1 ~]# mkdir /u01/tmp
[root@shard1 ~]# chmod a+wr /u01/tmp
[root@shard1 ~]# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/gsm
[root@shard1 ~]# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/gsm
[root@shard1 ~]# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/gsm
[root@shard1 ~]# su - oracle

[oracle@shard1 ~]$ vi .bash_profile
export PATH
# .bash_profile

# Get the aliases and functions
if [ -f ~/.bashrc ]; then
        . ~/.bashrc
fi

# User specific environment and startup programs

PATH=$PATH:$HOME/.local/bin:$HOME/bin


export PATH
TEMP=/u01/tmp
TMPDIR=/u01/tmp
export TEMP TMPDIR
export LD_ASSUME_KERNEL=3.8.13
export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
DB_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db
GSM_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/gsm
export ORACLE_HOME=$DB_HOME
export ORACLE_SID=jytest2
export ORACLE_UNQNAME=jytest
export NLS_LANG=AMERICAN_AMERICA.ZHS16GBK
export ORA_NLS33=$ORACLE_HOME/ocommon/nls/admin/data
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:/usr/local/lib
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
export PATH=$PATH:$ORACLE_HOME/bin
CLASSPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/JRE:$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib
CLASSPATH=$CLASSPATH:$ORACLE_HOME/network/jlib
export CLASSPATH
umask=022

[oracle@shard1 ~]$ alias gsm_env='. /home/oracle/gsm_env'
[oracle@shard1 ~]$ alias db_env='. /home/oracle/db_env' 
[oracle@shard1 ~]$ vi gsm_env
ORACLE_HOME=$GSM_HOME; export ORACLE_HOME
PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$BASE_PATH; export PATH

[oracle@shard1 ~]$ vi db_env
ORACLE_HOME=$DB_HOME; export ORACLE_HOME
PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$BASE_PATH; export PATH

修改内核参数编辑/etc/sysctl.conf文件

[root@shard1 ~]# vi /etc/sysctl.conf
# System default settings live in /usr/lib/sysctl.d/00-system.conf.
# To override those settings, enter new settings here, or in an /etc/sysctl.d/.conf file
#
# For more information, see sysctl.conf(5) and sysctl.d(5).

fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576
fs.file-max = 6815744
kernel.shmall = 2097152
kernel.shmmax = 4294967295
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500
net.core.rmem_default = 262144
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 1048576

[root@shard1 ~]# sysctl -p
fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576
fs.file-max = 6815744
kernel.shmall = 2097152
kernel.shmmax = 4294967295
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500
net.core.rmem_default = 262144
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 1048576

修改oarcle参数的shell限制,在所有节点的/etc/security/limits.conf文件中添加以下参数

oracle soft nproc 2047
oracle hard nproc 16384
oracle soft nofile 1024
oracle hard nofile 65536
oracle soft stack 10240
oracle hard stack 32768
oracle soft memlock 3145728
oracle hard memlock 3145728

修改shell的默认参数文件,在所有节点的/etc/profile文件中添加以下内容:

if [ $USER = "oracle" ]; then
if [ $SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ]; then
ulimit -p 16384
ulimit -n 65536
else
ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536
fi
fi

3.安装Oracle软件

[root@shard1 soft]# unzip linuxx64_12201_database.zip

[root@shard1 soft]# chown -R oracle:oinstall database

[root@shard1 Desktop]# xhost +
access control disabled, clients can connect from any host
[root@shard1 Desktop]# su - oracle
Last login: Thu Oct 12 12:01:58 CST 2017 on pts/1
[oracle@shard1 ~]$ export DISPLAY=:1
[oracle@shard1 ~]$ cd /soft/database
[oracle@shard1 database]$ ls -lrt
total 24
-rwxr-xr-x.  1 oracle oinstall  500 Feb  7  2013 welcome.html
drwxr-xr-x.  4 oracle oinstall 4096 Jan 26  2017 install
-rwxr-xr-x.  1 oracle oinstall 8771 Jan 26  2017 runInstaller
drwxr-xr-x.  2 oracle oinstall   34 Jan 26  2017 rpm
drwxrwxr-x.  2 oracle oinstall   28 Jan 26  2017 sshsetup
drwxrwxr-x.  2 oracle oinstall   58 Jan 26  2017 response
drwxr-xr-x. 14 oracle oinstall 4096 Jan 26  2017 stage
[oracle@shard1 database]$ ./runInstaller

[root@shard1 soft]# /u01/app/oraInventory/orainstRoot.sh
Changing permissions of /u01/app/oraInventory.
Adding read,write permissions for group.
Removing read,write,execute permissions for world.

Changing groupname of /u01/app/oraInventory to oinstall.
The execution of the script is complete.
[root@shard1 soft]# /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/root.sh
Performing root user operation.

The following environment variables are set as:
    ORACLE_OWNER= oracle
    ORACLE_HOME=  /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db

Enter the full pathname of the local bin directory: [/usr/local/bin]: 
   Copying dbhome to /usr/local/bin ...
   Copying oraenv to /usr/local/bin ...
   Copying coraenv to /usr/local/bin ...


Creating /etc/oratab file...
Entries will be added to the /etc/oratab file as needed by
Database Configuration Assistant when a database is created
Finished running generic part of root script.
Now product-specific root actions will be performed.
Do you want to setup Oracle Trace File Analyzer (TFA) now ? yes|[no] : 
yes
Installing Oracle Trace File Analyzer (TFA).
Log File: /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/install/root_shard1_2017-10-12_13-06-02-537061115.log
Finished installing Oracle Trace File Analyzer (TFA)

其它两个shard主机shard2,shard3安装Oracle软件的操作不再描述同上。

shard2上的oracle环境变量设置如下,其中ORACLE_SID与
ORACLE_UNQNAME设置为sh1,在后面向shard catalog数据库注册shard时会读取到

[oracle@shard2 ~]$ cat .bash_profile
# .bash_profile

# Get the aliases and functions
if [ -f ~/.bashrc ]; then
        . ~/.bashrc
fi

# User specific environment and startup programs

PATH=$PATH:$HOME/.local/bin:$HOME/bin


export PATH
TEMP=/u01/tmp
TMPDIR=/u01/tmp
export TEMP TMPDIR
export LD_ASSUME_KERNEL=3.8.13
export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
DB_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db
GSM_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/gsm
export ORACLE_HOME=$DB_HOME
export ORACLE_SID=sh1
export ORACLE_UNQNAME=sh1
export NLS_LANG=AMERICAN_AMERICA.ZHS16GBK
export ORA_NLS33=$ORACLE_HOME/ocommon/nls/admin/data
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:/usr/local/lib
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
export PATH=$PATH:$ORACLE_HOME/bin
CLASSPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/JRE:$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib
CLASSPATH=$CLASSPATH:$ORACLE_HOME/network/jlib
export CLASSPATH
umask=022

shard3上的oracle环境变量设置如下,其中ORACLE_SID与
ORACLE_UNQNAME设置为sh1,在后面向shard catalog数据库注册shard时会读取到

[oracle@shard3 ~]$ vi .bash_profile
# .bash_profile

# Get the aliases and functions
if [ -f ~/.bashrc ]; then
        . ~/.bashrc
fi

# User specific environment and startup programs

PATH=$PATH:$HOME/.local/bin:$HOME/bin


export PATH
TEMP=/u01/tmp
TMPDIR=/u01/tmp
export TEMP TMPDIR
export LD_ASSUME_KERNEL=3.8.13
export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
DB_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db
GSM_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/gsm
export ORACLE_HOME=$DB_HOME
export ORACLE_SID=sh2
export ORACLE_UNQNAME=sh2
export NLS_LANG=AMERICAN_AMERICA.ZHS16GBK
export ORA_NLS33=$ORACLE_HOME/ocommon/nls/admin/data
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib
LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:/usr/local/lib
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
export PATH=$PATH:$ORACLE_HOME/bin
CLASSPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/JRE:$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib
CLASSPATH=$CLASSPATH:$ORACLE_HOME/network/jlib
export CLASSPATH
umask=022

4.安装Shard Director Software

[root@shard1 soft]# unzip linuxx64_12201_gsm.zip

[root@shard1 Desktop]# xhost + 
access control disabled, clients can connect from any host
[root@shard1 Desktop]# su - oracle
Last login: Thu Oct 12 18:05:56 CST 2017 on pts/0
[oracle@shard1 ~]$ export DISPLAY=:1
[oracle@shard1 ~]$ cd /soft/gsm
[oracle@shard1 gsm]$ ls -lrt
total 24
-rwxrwxr-x.  1 oracle oinstall  500 Feb  7  2013 welcome.html
-rwxr-xr-x.  1 oracle oinstall 8772 Jan 26  2017 runInstaller
drwxr-xr-x.  4 oracle oinstall 4096 Jan 26  2017 install
drwxrwxr-x.  2 oracle oinstall   28 Jan 26  2017 response
drwxr-xr-x. 14 oracle oinstall 4096 Jan 26  2017 stage
[oracle@shard1 gsm]$ ./runInstaller


[root@shard1 soft]# /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/gsm/root.sh
Performing root user operation.

The following environment variables are set as:
    ORACLE_OWNER= oracle
    ORACLE_HOME=  /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/gsm

Enter the full pathname of the local bin directory: [/usr/local/bin]: 
The contents of "dbhome" have not changed. No need to overwrite.
The contents of "oraenv" have not changed. No need to overwrite.
The contents of "coraenv" have not changed. No need to overwrite.

Entries will be added to the /etc/oratab file as needed by
Database Configuration Assistant when a database is created
Finished running generic part of root script.
Now product-specific root actions will be performed.

5.创建shard catalog数据库
运行dbca开始建立数据库实例,这个实例是放分片数据的元数据的。我们把这个实例名叫shardcat。

[root@shard1 Desktop]# xhost +
access control disabled, clients can connect from any host
[root@shard1 Desktop]# su - oracle
Last login: Thu Oct 12 18:35:35 CST 2017 on pts/1
[oracle@shard1 ~]$ export DISPLAY=:1
[oracle@shard1 ~]$ dbca

[oracle@shard1 arch]$ lsnrctl status

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 12.2.0.1.0 - Production on 12-OCT-2017 18:58:06

Copyright (c) 1991, 2016, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=shard1)(PORT=1521)))
STATUS of the LISTENER
------------------------
Alias                     LISTENER
Version                   TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 12.2.0.1.0 - Production
Start Date                12-OCT-2017 18:26:22
Uptime                    0 days 0 hr. 31 min. 43 sec
Trace Level               off
Security                  ON: Local OS Authentication
SNMP                      OFF
Listener Parameter File   /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/network/admin/listener.ora
Listener Log File         /u01/app/oracle/diag/tnslsnr/shard1/listener/alert/log.xml
Listening Endpoints Summary...
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=shard1)(PORT=1521)))
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=EXTPROC1521)))
Services Summary...
Service "shardcat" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "shardcat", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "shardcatXDB" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "shardcat", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
The command completed successfully

6.设置Oracle Sharding Management and Routing Tier
登录shardcat主机,登录shardcat数据库:–建立tablespace set需要使用omf,所以需要指定db_create_file_dest参数。

[oracle@shard1 ~]$ echo $ORACLE_SID
shardcat
[oracle@shard1 ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 12.2.0.1.0 Production on Thu Oct 12 19:01:30 2017

Copyright (c) 1982, 2016, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.2.0.1.0 - 64bit Production

SQL> alter system set db_create_file_dest='/u01/app/oracle/oradata' scope=both;

System altered.

SQL> alter system set open_links=16 scope=spfile;

System altered.

SQL> alter system set open_links_per_instance=16 scope=spfile;

System altered.

SQL> startup force
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 2147483648 bytes
Fixed Size                  8622776 bytes
Variable Size             620760392 bytes
Database Buffers         1509949440 bytes
Redo Buffers                8151040 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.
SQL> alter user gsmcatuser account unlock;

User altered.

SQL> alter user gsmcatuser identified by oracle;

User altered.

SQL> create user mygdsadmin identified by oracle;

User created.

SQL> grant connect, create session, gsmadmin_role to mygdsadmin;

Grant succeeded.

SQL> grant inherit privileges on user SYS to GSMADMIN_INTERNAL;

Grant succeeded.

(update 2016-11-10 注:在12.2. beta 2后可以不做这步)
SQL> alter system set events 'immediate trace name GWM_TRACE level 7'; 

System altered.

(update 2016-11-10  注:在12.2. beta 2后可以不做这步)
SQL> alter system set event='10798 trace name context forever, level 7' scope=spfile;

System altered.

SQL> execute dbms_xdb.sethttpport(8080);

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> commit;

Commit complete.

SQL> @?/rdbms/admin/prvtrsch.plb 

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.


Session altered.


PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.


PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.


Session altered.


Session altered.


Package created.

No errors.

Grant succeeded.


Session altered.


Session altered.


Package body created.

No errors.

Session altered.


Session altered.


Procedure created.

No errors.

Function created.

No errors.

Procedure created.

No errors.

Procedure created.

No errors.

Procedure created.

No errors.

Procedure created.

No errors.

Procedure created.

No errors.

Procedure created.

No errors.

Procedure created.

No errors.

Procedure created.

No errors.

Procedure created.

No errors.

Procedure created.

No errors.

Audit policy altered.


1 row updated.


Commit complete.


Session altered.


PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> exec DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_AGENT_REGISTRATION_PASS('oracle'); 

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> startup force
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 2147483648 bytes
Fixed Size                  8622776 bytes
Variable Size             620760392 bytes
Database Buffers         1509949440 bytes
Redo Buffers                8151040 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.

在所有的shard节点分别执行Agent注册
登录shard2主机:

[oracle@shard2 ~]$ schagent -start

Scheduler agent started using port 65121
[oracle@shard2 ~]$ schagent status
Agent running with PID 12078

Agent_version:12.2.0.1.2
Running_time:00:00:10
Total_jobs_run:0
Running_jobs:0
Platform:Linux
ORACLE_HOME:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db
ORACLE_BASE:/u01/app/oracle
Port:65121
Host:shard2

[oracle@shard2 ~]$ echo oracle|schagent -registerdatabase shard1 8080
Agent Registration Password ?  
Oracle Scheduler Agent Registration for 12.2.0.1.2 Agent
Agent Registration Successful!

[oracle@shard2 ~]$ mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/oradata
[oracle@shard2 ~]$ mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area

登录shard3主机:

[oracle@shard3 ~]$ source .bash_profile
[oracle@shard3 ~]$ schagent -start

Scheduler agent started using port 35374
[oracle@shard3 ~]$ schagent -status
Agent running with PID 13019

Agent_version:12.2.0.1.2
Running_time:00:00:07
Total_jobs_run:0
Running_jobs:0
Platform:Linux
ORACLE_HOME:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db
ORACLE_BASE:/u01/app/oracle
Port:35374
Host:shard3

[oracle@shard3 ~]$ echo oracle|schagent -registerdatabase shard1 8080
Agent Registration Password ?  
Oracle Scheduler Agent Registration for 12.2.0.1.2 Agent
Agent Registration Successful!
[oracle@shard3 ~]$  mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/oradata
[oracle@shard3 ~]$ mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area

7.Deploying and Managing a System-Managed SDB
我们开始部署,以最简单的System-Managed SDB为例。
另外,admin guide中介绍的是4台主机做shard node,其中每2台互为dataguard主备。我们这边为了节约空间和资源,不搞dataguard了,只建立primary库。因此只要2台主机做shard node。先设置gsm的环境变量
进入到GDSCTL命令行,创建shard catalog。


[oracle@shard1 ~]$ export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
[oracle@shard1 ~]$ export ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/gsm
[oracle@shard1 ~]$ export PATH=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/gsm/bin:$PATH:$HOME/bin
[oracle@shard1 ~]$ gdsctl
GDSCTL: Version 12.2.0.1.0 - Production on Thu Oct 12 19:24:36 CST 2017

Copyright (c) 2011, 2016, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Welcome to GDSCTL, type "help" for information.

Warning: current GSM name is not set automatically because gsm.ora contains zero or several GSM entries. Use "set  gsm" command to set GSM for the session.
Current GSM is set to GSMORA
GDSCTL>

GDSCTL>create shardcatalog -database shard1:1521:shardcat -chunks 12 -user mygdsadmin/oracle -sdb shardcat -region region1 -agent_port 8080 -agent_password oracle
Catalog is created

创建和启动shard director.
参数含义:
-gsm: 指定shard director名称
-listener: 指定shard director的监听端口,注意不能与数据库的listener端口冲突
-catalog: 指定catalog database 信息,catalog数据库的主机名:监听器port: catalog 数据库db_name


GDSCTL>add gsm -gsm sharddirector1 -listener 1571 -pwd oracle -catalog shard1:1521:shardcat -region region1
GSM successfully added

GDSCTL>start gsm -gsm sharddirector1
GSM is started successfully

添加操作系统认证.
GDSCTL>add credential -credential oracle_cred -osaccount oracle -ospassword oracle
The operation completed successfully

开始布署SharedDatabase。本例将布署System-ManagedSDB。
部署system-managed SDB

1.连接到shard director/GSM服务器(shard1)

[oracle@shard1 ~]$ export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
[oracle@shard1 ~]$ export ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/gsm
[oracle@shard1 ~]$ export PATH=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/gsm/bin:$PATH:$HOME/bin
[oracle@shard1 ~]$ gdsctl
GDSCTL: Version 12.2.0.1.0 - Production on Thu Oct 12 19:35:21 CST 2017

Copyright (c) 2011, 2016, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Welcome to GDSCTL, type "help" for information.

Current GSM is set to SHARDDIRECTOR1

设置当前session为sharddirector1 shard director

GDSCTL>set gsm -gsm sharddirector1 
GDSCTL>connect mygdsadmin/oracle
Catalog connection is established

添加shardgroup, shardgroup是一组shard的集合,shardgroup名称为primary_shardgroup,-deploy_as primary表示这个group中的shard都是主库。

GDSCTL>add shardgroup -shardgroup primary_shardgroup -deploy_as primary -region region1
The operation completed successfully

将每个shard地址添加到catalog的valid node checking for registration (VNCR)列表,并且创建shard
GDSCTL>add invitednode shard2
GDSCTL>create shard -shardgroup primary_shardgroup -destination shard2 -credential oracle_cred
The operation completed successfully
DB Unique Name: sh1
GDSCTL>add invitednode shard3
GDSCTL>create shard -shardgroup primary_shardgroup -destination shard3 -credential oracle_cred
The operation completed successfully
DB Unique Name: sh2

检查配置

GDSCTL>config

Regions
------------------------
region1                       

GSMs
------------------------
sharddirector1                

Sharded Database
------------------------
shardcat                      

Databases
------------------------
sh1                           
sh2                           

Shard Groups
------------------------
primary_shardgroup            

Shard spaces
------------------------
shardspaceora                 

Services
------------------------

GDSCTL pending requests
------------------------
Command                       Object                        Status                        
-------                       ------                        ------                        

Global properties
------------------------
Name: oradbcloud
Master GSM: sharddirector1
DDL sequence #: 0


GDSCTL>config shardspace
Shard space                   Chunks                        
-----------                   ------                        
shardspaceora                 12                            

GDSCTL>config shardgroup
Shard Group         Chunks Region              Shard space         
-----------         ------ ------              -----------         
primary_shardgroup  12     region1             shardspaceora       

GDSCTL>config vncr
Name                          Group ID                      
----                          --------                      
shard2                                                      
shard3                                                      
10.138.130.180                                              

GDSCTL>config shard
Name                Shard Group         Status    State       Region    Availability 
----                -----------         ------    -----       ------    ------------ 
sh1                 primary_shardgroup  U         none        region1   -            
sh2                 primary_shardgroup  U         none        region1   -            

部署deploy
Shard数据库部署过程采用静默安装方式。

GDSCTL>deploy

此时,就开始部署shard了。在shard node上的agent会自动的调用netca和dbca,创建listener和database,2个shard node的操作是并行进行的。(如果是有datauard,那么是先建立一对主备,再建立另一对主备。)你可以在分别是两个shard node上ps -ef|grep ora_ 看到已经有sh1和sh2的实例了。我们可以执行在shard2与shard3上执行ps -ef | grep dbca与lsnrctl status,ps -ef | grep pmon来检查。

[root@shard2 ~]# ps -ef | grep dbca
oracle   20437 20429 99 19:49 pts/0    00:00:19 /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/jdk/jre/bin/java -Doracle.installer.not_bootstrap=true -DCV_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db -DORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db -XX:-OmitStackTraceInFastThrow -XX:CompileCommand=quiet -XX:CompileCommand=exclude,javax/swing/text/GlyphView,getBreakSpot -DSET_LAF= -Dsun.java2d.font.DisableAlgorithmicStyles=true -Dice.pilots.html4.ignoreNonGenericFonts=true -DDISPLAY= -DJDBC_PROTOCOL=thin -mx512m -classpath /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/assistants/dbca/jlib/dbca.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/assistants/dbca/jlib/dbcaext.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/assistants/jlib/assistantsCommon.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/assistants/jlib/rconfig.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/assistants/jlib/asstcommonext.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/oui/jlib/OraInstaller.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/oui/jlib/OraPrereq.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/inventory/prereqs/oui/OraPrereqChecks.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/oui/jlib/OraPrereqChecks.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/oui/jlib/OraCheckPoint.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/jlib/cvu.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/install/jlib/installcommons_1.0.0b.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/oui/jlib/jewt4.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/oui/jlib/ssh.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/jlib/ewt3.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/jlib/ewtcompat-3_3_15.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/jlib/share.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/jlib/help4.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/oui/jlib/jewt4.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/jlib/oracle_ice.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/jlib/kodiak.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/lib/xmlparserv2.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/jlib/orai18n.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/jlib/ldapjclnt12.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/jlib/netcfg.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/jlib/ojmisc.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/jlib/oraclepki.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/jlib/opm.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/jdbc/lib/ojdbc8.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/jlib/srvm.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/jlib/srvmhas.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/jlib/srvmasm.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/dv/jlib/dvca.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/jlib/gns.jar:/u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/jlib/commons-compress-1.8.jar oracle.assistants.dbca.driver.DBConfigurator -silent -responseFile /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/shard_sh1_dbca.rsp -createDatabase -gdbName sh1 -sid sh1 -initparams db_unique_name=sh1,db_name=sh1,db_domain= -templateName /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/shard_sh1_template.dbt -customscripts /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/shard_sh1_postCR.sql -listeners LISTENER_sh1
root     20881 12186  0 19:49 pts/1    00:00:00 grep --color=auto dbca


[oracle@shard2 ~]$ lsnrctl status

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 12.2.0.1.0 - Production on 12-OCT-2017 19:56:01

Copyright (c) 1991, 2016, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connecting to (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=)(PORT=1521))
STATUS of the LISTENER
------------------------
Alias                     LISTENER_sh1
Version                   TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 12.2.0.1.0 - Production
Start Date                12-OCT-2017 19:48:45
Uptime                    0 days 0 hr. 7 min. 18 sec
Trace Level               off
Security                  ON: Local OS Authentication
SNMP                      OFF
Listener Parameter File   /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/db/network/admin/listener.ora
Listener Log File         /u01/app/oracle/diag/tnslsnr/shard2/listener_sh1/alert/log.xml
Listening Endpoints Summary...
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=shard2)(PORT=1521)))
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=EXTPROC1521)))
Services Summary...
Service "sh1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "sh1", status RESTRICTED, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "sh1_DGMGRL" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "sh1", status UNKNOWN, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
The command completed successfully
[oracle@shard2 ~]$ ps -ef | grep pmon
oracle   22086     1  0 19:54 ?        00:00:00 ora_pmon_sh1
oracle   22982  5293  0 19:56 pts/0    00:00:00 grep --color=auto pmon
GDSCTL>deploy
deploy: examining configuration...
deploy: deploying primary shard 'sh1' ...
deploy: network listener configuration successful at destination 'shard2'
deploy: starting DBCA at destination 'shard2' to create primary shard 'sh1' ...
deploy: deploying primary shard 'sh2' ...
deploy: network listener configuration successful at destination 'shard3'
deploy: starting DBCA at destination 'shard3' to create primary shard 'sh2' ...
deploy: waiting for 2 DBCA primary creation job(s) to complete...
deploy: waiting for 2 DBCA primary creation job(s) to complete...
deploy: waiting for 2 DBCA primary creation job(s) to complete...
deploy: waiting for 2 DBCA primary creation job(s) to complete...
deploy: waiting for 2 DBCA primary creation job(s) to complete...
deploy: waiting for 2 DBCA primary creation job(s) to complete...
deploy: waiting for 2 DBCA primary creation job(s) to complete...
deploy: waiting for 2 DBCA primary creation job(s) to complete...
deploy: waiting for 2 DBCA primary creation job(s) to complete...
deploy: waiting for 2 DBCA primary creation job(s) to complete...
deploy: waiting for 2 DBCA primary creation job(s) to complete...
deploy: waiting for 2 DBCA primary creation job(s) to complete...
deploy: waiting for 2 DBCA primary creation job(s) to complete...
deploy: waiting for 2 DBCA primary creation job(s) to complete...
deploy: waiting for 2 DBCA primary creation job(s) to complete...
deploy: waiting for 2 DBCA primary creation job(s) to complete...
deploy: waiting for 2 DBCA primary creation job(s) to complete...
deploy: waiting for 2 DBCA primary creation job(s) to complete...
deploy: waiting for 2 DBCA primary creation job(s) to complete...
deploy: DBCA primary creation job succeeded at destination 'shard2' for shard 'sh1'
deploy: waiting for 1 DBCA primary creation job(s) to complete...
deploy: DBCA primary creation job succeeded at destination 'shard3' for shard 'sh2'
deploy: requesting Data Guard configuration on shards via GSM
deploy: shards configured successfully
The operation completed successfully

我们可以检查一下shard的情况了:

GDSCTL>config shard
Name                Shard Group         Status    State       Region    Availability 
----                -----------         ------    -----       ------    ------------ 
sh1                 primary_shardgroup  Ok        Deployed    region1   ONLINE       
sh2                 primary_shardgroup  Ok        Deployed    region1   ONLINE       

GDSCTL>databases
Database: "sh1" Registered: Y State: Ok ONS: N. Role: PRIMARY Instances: 1 Region: region1
   Registered instances:
     shardcat%1
Database: "sh2" Registered: Y State: Ok ONS: N. Role: PRIMARY Instances: 1 Region: region1
   Registered instances:
     shardcat%11

GDSCTL>config shard -shard sh1
Name: sh1
Shard Group: primary_shardgroup
Status: Ok
State: Deployed
Region: region1
Connection string: shard2:1521/sh1:dedicated
SCAN address: 
ONS remote port: 0
Disk Threshold, ms: 20
CPU Threshold, %: 75
Version: 12.2.0.0
Failed DDL: 
DDL Error: ---
Failed DDL id: 
Availability: ONLINE
Rack: 


Supported services
------------------------
Name                                                            Preferred Status    
----                                                            --------- ------    

GDSCTL>config shard -shard sh2
Name: sh2
Shard Group: primary_shardgroup
Status: Ok
State: Deployed
Region: region1
Connection string: shard3:1521/sh2:dedicated
SCAN address: 
ONS remote port: 0
Disk Threshold, ms: 20
CPU Threshold, %: 75
Version: 12.2.0.0
Failed DDL: 
DDL Error: ---
Failed DDL id: 
Availability: ONLINE
Rack: 


Supported services
------------------------
Name                                                            Preferred Status    
----                                                            --------- ------    

创建service

GDSCTL>add service -service oltp_rw_srvc -role primary
The operation completed successfully
GDSCTL>start service -service oltp_rw_srvc
The operation completed successfully
GDSCTL>status service
Service "oltp_rw_srvc.shardcat.oradbcloud" has 2 instance(s). Affinity: ANYWHERE
   Instance "shardcat%1", name: "sh1", db: "sh1", region: "region1", status: ready.
   Instance "shardcat%11", name: "sh2", db: "sh2", region: "region1", status: ready.

(其实这个service,用于adg的主备切换后,这个service漂移到备库上)

创建用户和对象
1. 在catalog数据库中创建业务用户

[oracle@shard2 ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 12.2.0.1.0 Production on Fri Oct 13 13:24:45 2017

Copyright (c) 1982, 2016, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.2.0.1.0 - 64bit Production

SQL> alter session enable shard ddl;

Session altered.

SQL> create user app_schema identified by oracle;

User created.

SQL> grant all privileges to app_schema;

Grant succeeded.

SQL> grant gsmadmin_role to app_schema;

Grant succeeded.

SQL> grant select_catalog_role to app_schema;

Grant succeeded.

SQL> grant connect, resource to app_schema;

Grant succeeded.

SQL>  grant dba to app_schema;

Grant succeeded.

SQL> grant execute on dbms_crypto to app_schema;

Grant succeeded.

2. 利用应用用户登录,创建表空间集合

SQL>  conn app_schema/oracle
Connected.
SQL>  alter session enable shard ddl;

Session altered.

SQL> create tablespace set tsp_set_1 using template (datafile size 100m autoextend on next 10m maxsize unlimited extent management local segment space management auto);

Tablespace created.

3. 为duplicated tables创建表空间,这个测试中duplicated table是Products table.

SQL> create tablespace products_tsp datafile size 100m autoextend on next 10m maxsize unlimited extent management local uniform size 1m;

Tablespace created.

4. 创建shard表

SQL> create sharded table customers
  2    (
  3      custid      varchar2(60) not null,
  4      firstname   varchar2(60),
  5      lastname    varchar2(60),
  6      class       varchar2(10),
  7      geo         varchar2(8),
  8      custprofile varchar2(4000),
  9      passwd      raw(60),
 10      constraint pk_customers primary key (custid),
 11      constraint json_customers check (custprofile is json)
 12    ) tablespace set tsp_set_1
 13  partition by consistent hash (custid) partitions auto;

Table created.

SQL> create sharded table orders
  2  (
  3    orderid     integer not null,
  4    custid      varchar2(60) not null,
  5    orderdate   timestamp not null,
  6    sumtotal    number(19,4),
  7    status      char(4),
  8    constraint  pk_orders primary key (custid, orderid),
  9    constraint  fk_orders_parent foreign key (custid) 
 10    references customers on delete cascade
 11  ) partition by reference (fk_orders_parent);  

Table created.

5.为orders表的orderid列创建序列

SQL> create sequence orders_seq; 

Sequence created.

6. 创建SHARDED TABLE LineItems

SQL> create sharded table lineitems
  2  (
  3    orderid     integer not null,
  4    custid      varchar2(60) not null,
  5    productid   integer not null,
  6    price       number(19,4),
  7    qty         number,
  8    constraint  pk_items primary key (custid, orderid, productid),
  9    constraint  fk_items_parent foreign key (custid, orderid)
 10    references orders on delete cascade
 11  ) partition by reference (fk_items_parent);

Table created.

7. 创建duplicated tables.

SQL> create duplicated table products
  2  (
  3    productid  integer generated by default as identity primary key,
  4    name       varchar2(128),
  5    descruri   varchar2(128),
  6    lastprice  number(19,4)
  7  ) tablespace products_tsp;  

Table created.

8. 创建function,目的是为了后面的DEMO:

SQL> create or replace function passwcreate(passw in raw)
  2  return raw
  3  is
  4  salt raw(8);
  5  begin
  6  salt := dbms_crypto.randombytes(8);
  7  return utl_raw.concat(salt, dbms_crypto.hash(utl_raw.concat(salt,
  8  passw), dbms_crypto.hash_sh256));
  9  end;
 10  /

Function created.

SQL> create or replace function passwcheck(passw in raw, phash in raw)
  2  return integer is
  3  begin
  4  return utl_raw.compare(
  5  dbms_crypto.hash(utl_raw.concat(utl_raw.substr(phash, 1, 8),
  6  passw), dbms_crypto.hash_sh256),
  7  utl_raw.substr(phash, 9));
  8  end;
  9  /

Function created.

GDSCTL>connect mygdsadmin/oracle
Catalog connection is established

GDSCTL>show ddl
id DDL Text Failed shards
— ——– ————-
7 grant execute on dbms_crypto to app_s…
8 create tablespace set tsp_set_1 using…
9 create tablespace products_tsp datafi…
10 create sharded table customers ( …
11 create sharded table orders ( orde…
12 create sequence orders_seq
13 create sharded table lineitems ( o…
14 CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW “APP_SCHEMA”…
15 create or replace function passwcreat…
16 create or replace function passwcheck…

10. 检查每个shard是否有DDL错误

GDSCTL>config shard -shard sh1
Name: sh1
Shard Group: primary_shardgroup
Status: Ok
State: Deployed
Region: region1
Connection string: shard2:1521/sh1:dedicated
SCAN address: 
ONS remote port: 0
Disk Threshold, ms: 20
CPU Threshold, %: 75
Version: 12.2.0.0
Failed DDL: 
DDL Error: ---   没有DDL错误
Failed DDL id: 
Availability: ONLINE
Rack: 


Supported services
------------------------
Name                                                            Preferred Status    
----                                                            --------- ------    
oltp_rw_srvc                                                    Yes       Enabled   

GDSCTL>config shard -shard sh2
Name: sh2
Shard Group: primary_shardgroup
Status: Ok
State: Deployed
Region: region1
Connection string: shard3:1521/sh2:dedicated
SCAN address: 
ONS remote port: 0
Disk Threshold, ms: 20
CPU Threshold, %: 75
Version: 12.2.0.0
Failed DDL: 
DDL Error: ---   没有DDL错误
Failed DDL id: 
Availability: ONLINE
Rack: 


Supported services
------------------------
Name                                                            Preferred Status    
----                                                            --------- ------    
oltp_rw_srvc                                                    Yes       Enabled  

验证环境-表空间/chunks
1. 在gsm(shard1)节点,检查chunks信息
前面创建shardcatalog时指定chunks为12,因此后续创建shard table分配12个chunks

GDSCTL>config chunks
Chunks
------------------------
Database                      From      To        
--------                      ----      --        
sh1                           1         6         
sh2                           7         12   


SQL> select TABLESPACE_NAME, BYTES/1024/1024 MB from sys.dba_data_files order by  tablespace_name;

TABLESPACE_NAME                                                      MB
------------------------------------------------------------ ----------
PRODUCTS_TSP                                                        100
SYSAUX                                                              520
SYSTEM                                                              810
TSP_SET_1                                                           100
UNDOTBS1                                                             70
USERS                                                                 5

6 rows selected.


SQL> select table_name, partition_name, tablespace_name from dba_tab_partitions where tablespace_name like 'C%TSP_SET_1' order by tablespace_name;

no rows selected


SQL> col TABLE_NAME for a20
SQL> col PARTITION_NAME for a20
SQL> col TABLESPACE_NAME for a20
SQL> select table_name, partition_name, tablespace_name from dba_tab_partitions where tablespace_name like '%SET%';

TABLE_NAME           PARTITION_NAME       TABLESPACE_NAME
-------------------- -------------------- --------------------
CUSTOMERS            CUSTOMERS_P1         TSP_SET_1
ORDERS               CUSTOMERS_P1         TSP_SET_1
LINEITEMS            CUSTOMERS_P1         TSP_SET_1


SQL> select TABLESPACE_NAME, BYTES/1024/1024 MB from sys.dba_data_files;

TABLESPACE_NAME              MB
-------------------- ----------
SYSTEM                      810
SYSAUX                      520
UNDOTBS1                     70
USERS                         5
TSP_SET_1                   100
PRODUCTS_TSP                100

6 rows selected.

SQL> select a.name Shard, count( b.chunk_number) Number_of_Chunks from gsmadmin_internal.database a, gsmadmin_internal.chunk_loc b where a.database_num=b.database_num group by a.name;

SHARD                                                        NUMBER_OF_CHUNKS
------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------
sh1                                                                         6
sh2                                                                         6

2. 在shard2节点检查表空间和chunks信息
–表空间

[oracle@shard2 ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 12.2.0.1.0 Production on Fri Oct 13 16:25:30 2017

Copyright (c) 1982, 2016, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.2.0.1.0 - 64bit Production

SQL> select TABLESPACE_NAME, BYTES/1024/1024 MB from sys.dba_data_files order by tablespace_name;

TABLESPACE_NAME                                                      MB
------------------------------------------------------------ ----------
C001TSP_SET_1                                                       100
C002TSP_SET_1                                                       100
C003TSP_SET_1                                                       100
C004TSP_SET_1                                                       100
C005TSP_SET_1                                                       100
C006TSP_SET_1                                                       100
PRODUCTS_TSP                                                        100
SYSAUX                                                              520
SYSTEM                                                              810
TSP_SET_1                                                           100
UNDOTBS1                                                             70
USERS                                                                 5

12 rows selected.

创建了6个表空间,分别是C001TSP_SET_1 ~ 表空间C006TSP_SET_1,因为设置chunks=12,每个shard有6个chunks。每个表空间有一个datafile,大小是100M,这个是在创建tablespace set时设置的datafile 100M。

–检查chunks

SQL> set linesize 140
SQL> column table_name format a20
SQL> column tablespace_name format a20
SQL> column partition_name format a20
SQL> show parameter db_unique_name
NAME                                 TYPE                   VALUE
------------------------------------ ---------------------- ------------------------------
db_unique_name                       string                 sh1
SQL> select table_name, partition_name, tablespace_name from dba_tab_partitions where tablespace_name like 'C%TSP_SET_1' order by tablespace_name;

TABLE_NAME           PARTITION_NAME       TABLESPACE_NAME
-------------------- -------------------- --------------------
LINEITEMS            CUSTOMERS_P1         C001TSP_SET_1
CUSTOMERS            CUSTOMERS_P1         C001TSP_SET_1
ORDERS               CUSTOMERS_P1         C001TSP_SET_1
CUSTOMERS            CUSTOMERS_P2         C002TSP_SET_1
ORDERS               CUSTOMERS_P2         C002TSP_SET_1
LINEITEMS            CUSTOMERS_P2         C002TSP_SET_1
CUSTOMERS            CUSTOMERS_P3         C003TSP_SET_1
LINEITEMS            CUSTOMERS_P3         C003TSP_SET_1
ORDERS               CUSTOMERS_P3         C003TSP_SET_1
LINEITEMS            CUSTOMERS_P4         C004TSP_SET_1
CUSTOMERS            CUSTOMERS_P4         C004TSP_SET_1
ORDERS               CUSTOMERS_P4         C004TSP_SET_1
CUSTOMERS            CUSTOMERS_P5         C005TSP_SET_1
ORDERS               CUSTOMERS_P5         C005TSP_SET_1
LINEITEMS            CUSTOMERS_P5         C005TSP_SET_1
CUSTOMERS            CUSTOMERS_P6         C006TSP_SET_1
ORDERS               CUSTOMERS_P6         C006TSP_SET_1
LINEITEMS            CUSTOMERS_P6         C006TSP_SET_1

18 rows selected.

4. 在catalog数据库检查chunks信息

SQL> set echo off
SQL> select a.name Shard, count( b.chunk_number) Number_of_Chunks from gsmadmin_internal.database a, gsmadmin_internal.chunk_loc b where a.database_num=b.database_num group by a.name;

SHARD                                                        NUMBER_OF_CHUNKS
------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------
sh1                                                                         6
sh2                                                                         6

5. 验证环境-tables
–catalog数据库

SQL> conn app_schema/oracle
Connected.
SQL> select table_name from user_tables;

TABLE_NAME
--------------------
CUSTOMERS
ORDERS
LINEITEMS
PRODUCTS
MLOG$_PRODUCTS
RUPD$_PRODUCTS

6 rows selected.

–shard节点shard2和shard3

[oracle@shard2 ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 12.2.0.1.0 Production on Fri Oct 13 16:36:12 2017

Copyright (c) 1982, 2016, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.2.0.1.0 - 64bit Production

SQL> conn app_schema/oracle
Connected.
SQL> select table_name from user_tables;

TABLE_NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CUSTOMERS
ORDERS
LINEITEMS
PRODUCTS


[oracle@shard3 ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 12.2.0.1.0 Production on Fri Oct 13 16:36:06 2017

Copyright (c) 1982, 2016, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.2.0.1.0 - 64bit Production

SQL> conn app_schema/oracle
Connected.
SQL> select table_name from user_tables;

TABLE_NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CUSTOMERS
ORDERS
LINEITEMS
PRODUCTS

–插入数据

SQL>  INSERT INTO Customers (CustId, FirstName, LastName, CustProfile,
  2      Class, Geo, Passwd) VALUES ('james.parker@x.bogus', 'James', 'Parker',
  3      NULL, 'Gold', 'east', hextoraw('8d1c00e'));

1 row created.

SQL> commit;

Commit complete.


SQL> set termout on
SQL> set linesize 120
SQL> set echo on
SQL> column firstname format a20
SQL> column lastname format a20
SQL> explain plan for SELECT FirstName,LastName, geo, class FROM Customers;

Explained.

SQL> select plan_table_output from table(DBMS_XPLAN.DISPLAY());

PLAN_TABLE_OUTPUT
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Plan hash value: 2953441084

--------------------------------------------------------------
| Id  | Operation        | Name | Cost (%CPU)| Inst   |IN-OUT|
--------------------------------------------------------------
|   0 | SELECT STATEMENT |      |     0   (0)|        |      |
|   1 |  SHARD ITERATOR  |      |            |        |      |
|   2 |   REMOTE         |      |            | ORA_S~ | R->S |
--------------------------------------------------------------

Remote SQL Information (identified by operation id):

PLAN_TABLE_OUTPUT
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------

   2 - EXPLAIN PLAN INTO PLAN_TABLE@! FOR SELECT
       "A1"."FIRSTNAME","A1"."LASTNAME","A1"."GEO","A1"."CLASS" FROM
       "CUSTOMERS" "A1" /* coord_sql_id=9j0dws979r7rr */  (accessing
       'ORA_SHARD_POOL@ORA_MULTI_TARGET' )


18 rows selected.

sharding在12.2中有太多的限制与坑,期待以后的改进。

Oracle 12c 使用SQL*Plus来创建与移动应用程序Seeds

可以使用多种方法来创建应用程序seeds,包括使用CDB seed,克隆现有的PDB或Non-CDB,与附加一个卸载的PDB。也可以从应用程序容器中删除应用程序seeds。

为了在应用程序容器中创建新的应用程序seed,可以执行带有as seed子句的create pluggable database语句。可以使用应用程序种子为应用程序提供一个应用程序容器。通常在应用程序seed创建之前应用程序容器的应用程序被安装在应用程序root中。在应用程序seed创建之后它将与应用程序root进行同步,因此应用程序被安装在应用程序seed中。当创建应用程序seed之后,使用应用程序seed创建的任何PDB都安装应用程序。当应用程序root中的应用程序被升级或打补丁后,应用程序seed必须使用应用程序root进行同步来应用这些改变。

通过执行带有as seed子句的create pluggable database语句来创建应用程序seed。

一个应用程序容器可以有零或一个应用程序seed。当使用as seed子句创建应程序seed时,不用指定它的名字。应用程序seed名字总是以application_container_name$SEED命名,其中application_container_name是应用程序seed的应用程序容器的名字。例如,在salesact应用程序容器中的应用程序seed它的名字必须是salesact$SEED。

当创建一个新的应用程序seed时,必须为在create pluggable database语句中为应用程序容器指定管理员。这个语句将在应用程序容器中创建一个本地用户的管理员,并且被授予pdb_dba角色。

创建应用程序seed的所需要满足的条件:
.CDB必须存在

.CDB必须处于读写模式

.应用程序seed所属的应用程序容器必须处于读写模式

.当前用户必须是一个公共用户,应用程序seed所属的应用程序root是当前容器

.当前用户有create pluggable database系统权限

.在应用程序容器中对于包含应用程序的应用程序seed,应用程序必须安装在应用程序root

创建应用程序seed
可以通过执行带有as seed子句的create pluggable database语句来创建应用程序。应用程序容器中的应用程序seed类似于CDB中的seed。一个应用程序seed能用来快速与简单的创建满足应用程序容器要求的应用程序PDB。创建应用程序seed的操作如下:
1.在SQL*Plus中,确保当前容器是应用程序root。

2.执行带有as seed子句的create pluggable database语句来创建应用程序seed。根据需要还可以指定其它子句。在创建完应用程序seed后,它处于mounted模式,状态为new。可以通过查询v$pdbs视图的open_mode列来检查应用程序seed的打开模式。可以通过查询cdb_pdbs或者dba_pdbs视图的status列来查看应用程序seed的状态。还会为应用程序seed创建缺省的服务名。服务名与应用程序seed同名并且可以被用来访问应用程序seed。

3.以读写模式来打开新的应用程序seed

4.为了将新应用程序seed集成到应用程序容器中必须以读写模式来打开新的应用程序seed。如果试图以只读模式来打开新的应用程序seed将会返回错误信息。在应用程序seed以读写模式打开后,它的状态将为normal。

5.执行一个或多个以下操作:
5.a 如果使用CDB seed中创建应用程序seed,那么将容器切换到应用程序seed,并且执行带有sync子句的alter pluggable database语句来同步应用程序seed。同步使用应用程序root来实例化应用程序seed中的一个或多个应用程序root的应用程序。

5.b 如果使用应用程序root中创建应用程序seed,那么将容器切换到应用程序seed,然后执行pdb_to_apppdb.sql脚本来将应用程序root转换为应用程序PDB。

当通过克隆一个应用程序PDB来创建应用程序seed时这些操作不需要执行。

6.关闭应用程序seed,然后以只读模式来打开它。

7.备份应用程序seed。

使用CDB seed来创建应用程序seed
这个例子假设满足以下条件:
.应用程序seed将被创建在名为salesact的应用程序容器中。

.对应用程序seed不使用存储限制,因此不指定storage子句。

.应用程序seed不创建缺省表空间。

.不指定path_prefix子句。

.不指定file_name_convert与create_file_dest子句。可以对CDB启用OMF或设置pdb_file_name_convert初始化参数。与CDB相关的文件将会基于OMF配置或参数设置被复制到新目录中。

.在目标目录中没有与新temp文件同名的文件存在,将会创建新的temp文件,因此不用指定tempfile reuse子句。

.不需要预先定义Oracle角色被授予给pdb_dba角色。

执行的语句如下:
先切换到应用程序容器salesact中

SQL> alter session set container=salesact;

Session altered.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
SALESACT                                                                                                                         READ WRITE

执行语句来使用CDB seed来在应用程序容器salesact中创建应用程序seed,并打开应用程序seed。

SQL> create pluggable database as seed admin user actseedadm identified by "xxzx7817600";

Pluggable database created.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
SALESACT                                                                                                                         READ WRITE
SALESACT$SEED                                                                                                                    MOUNTED

SQL> alter pluggable database salesact$seed open;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
SALESACT                                                                                                                         READ WRITE
SALESACT$SEED                                                                                                                    READ WRITE

切换容器到应用程序seed(salesact$SEED)中,使用应用程序root中的所有应用程序来同步应用程序seed。

SQL> alter session set container=salesact$seed;

Session altered.

SQL>  select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
SALESACT$SEED                                                                                                                    READ WRITE

SQL> alter pluggable database application all sync;

Pluggable database altered.

关闭应用程序seed(salesact$seed),然后以只读模式来打开应用程序seed。

SQL> alter pluggable database close immediate;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
SALESACT$SEED                                                                                                                    MOUNTED

SQL> alter pluggable database  open read only;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
SALESACT$SEED                                                                                                                    READ ONLY

因为应用程序容器名为salesact,所以应用程序seed名为salesact$seed。在创建应用程序seed时一起创建了一个本地管理用户并且被授予了pdb_dba公共角色。如果这个用户在创建应用程序seed时没有授予管理权限,那么使用sys与system公共用户来管理应用程序seed。当创建应用程序seed时,将使用应用程序root来同步应用程序seed。因此应用程序seed将包含安装在应用程序root中的应用程序与应用程序公共对象它们是这些应用程序的一部分。当使用应用程序seed来创建新的应用程序PDB时,应用程序PDB也会包含这些安装的应用程序与应用程序公共对象。

使用应用程序PDB创建应用程序seed
这个例子假设满足以下条件:
.在应用程序容器salesact中创建了应用程序seed。

.将在应用程序PBD(salesapppdb)所在的应用程序容器中创建应用程序seed。

.对应用程序seed不使用存储限制,因此不指定storage子句。

.应用程序seed不包含缺省表空间。

.不指定path_prefix子句。

.不指定file_name_convert与create_file_dest子句。可以启用OMF或设置pdb_file_name_convert初始化参数。与应用程序root相关的文件会基于OMF的配置或初始化参数设置被复制到新目录中。

.在目标目录中没有与新temp文件同名的文件存在,因此不需要使用tempfile reuse子句。

切换容器到应用程序容器(salesact),并执行以下命令来创建应用程序seed。

SQL> create pluggable database as seed from salesapppdb;

Pluggable database created.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
SALESACT                                                                                                                         READ WRITE
SALESAPPPDB                                                                                                                      READ WRITE
SALESACT$SEED                                                                                                                    MOUNTED

然后打开应用程序seed,再关闭应用程序seed,最后再以只读方式打开应用程序seed。

SQL> alter pluggable database salesact$seed open;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
SALESACT                                                                                                                         READ WRITE
SALESAPPPDB                                                                                                                      READ WRITE
SALESACT$SEED                                                                                                                    READ WRITE

SQL> alter pluggable database salesact$seed close immediate;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
SALESACT                                                                                                                         READ WRITE
SALESAPPPDB                                                                                                                      READ WRITE
SALESACT$SEED                                                                                                                    MOUNTED

SQL> alter pluggable database salesact$seed open read only;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
SALESACT                                                                                                                         READ WRITE
SALESAPPPDB                                                                                                                      READ WRITE
SALESACT$SEED                                                                                                                    READ ONLY

因为应用程序容器名为salesact,所以应用程序seed名字默认为salesact$seed。应用程序seed是使用应用程序pdb而创建的,因此应用程序seed就包含了安装在应用程序root中的应用程序与应用程序公共对象,它们是这些应用程序的一部分。当使用应用程序seed来创建新的应用程序pdb时,应用程序pdb也会包含安装的应用程序与应用程序公共对象。

使用应用程序root来创建应用程序seed
这个例子假设满足以下条件:
.应用程序seed将创建在应用程序容器(salesact)中。应用程序seed使用对应用程序容器的root进行克隆进行创建。

.对应用程序seed不使用存储限制,因此不使用storage子句。

.应用程序seed不包含缺省表空间。

.不使用path_prefix子句。

.不使用file_name_convert与create_file_dest子句。可以启用OMF或设置pdb_file_name_convert初始化参数。基于OMF配置或初始化参数的设置与应用程序root相关的文件会被复制到新目录中。

.在目标目录中没有与新temp文件同名的文件存在,因此不需要使用tempfile reuse子句。

切换到应用程序容器(salesact)中,执行下面的命令来创建应用程序seed。

SQL> create pluggable database as seed from salesact;

Pluggable database created.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
SALESACT                                                                                                                         READ WRITE
SALESACT$SEED                                                                                                                    MOUNTED
SALESAPPPDB                                                                                                                      READ WRITE

打开应用程序seed,切换容器到应用程序seed,然后执行pdb_to_apppdb.sql脚本将应用程序root转换为应用程序pdb。

SQL> alter pluggable database salesact$seed open;

Warning: PDB altered with errors.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
SALESACT                                                                                                                         READ WRITE
SALESACT$SEED                                                                                                                    READ WRITE
SALESAPPPDB                                                                                                                      READ WRITE

SQL> alter session set container=salesact$seed;

Session altered.

SQL> @$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/pdb_to_apppdb.sql

...
SQL> BEGIN
  2    execute immediate '&open_sql &restricted_state';
  3  EXCEPTION
  4    WHEN OTHERS THEN
  5    BEGIN
  6      IF (sqlcode <> -900) THEN
  7        RAISE;
  8      END IF;
  9    END;
 10  END;
 11  /

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> 
SQL> WHENEVER SQLERROR CONTINUE;



SQL> alter pluggable database close immediate instances=all;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
SALESACT$SEED                                                                                                                    MOUNTED

1 row selected.

SQL> alter pluggable database open read only instances=all;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
SALESACT$SEED                                                                                                                    READ ONLY

1 row selected.

因为应用程序容器名为salesact,所以应用程序seed名为salesact$seed。应用程序seed是使用应用程序root进行创建的。因此应用程序seed包含安装在应用程序root中的应用程序与应用程序公共对象,它们是这些应用程序的一部分。当使用应用程序seed来创建新应用程序PDB时,应用程序pdb也会包含安装的应用程序与应用程序公共对象。

从应用程序容器中拔出应用程序seed
拔出应用程序seed就是断开应用程序seed与应用程序容器的关联。当不再需要应用程序seed时可以将其删除。拔出应用程序seed类似于拔出PDB。为了拔出应用程序seed,连接到它的应用程序root并使用alter pluggable database语句来指定生成xml文件或.pdb文件。当指定xml文件后,在卸载完成后生成的xml文件会包含描述应用程序seed的元数据。

SQL> alter pluggable database salesact$seed close immediate instances=all;

Pluggable database altered.



SQL>  select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
SALESACT                                                                                                                         READ WRITE
SALESACT$SEED                                                                                                                    MOUNTED
SALESAPPPDB                                                                                                                      READ WRITE

3 rows selected.



SQL> alter pluggable database salesact$seed unplug into '/tts/plug/salesact_seed.xml';

Pluggable database altered.

删除应用程序seed
当不再需要应用程序seed时,可以执行drop pluggable database语句来删除。当删除应用程序seed时,CDB的控制文件会被修改来删除与被删除应用程序seed的所有相关信息,但是归档重做日志与备份不会被删除,但可以使用RMAN来删除它们。

SQL> drop pluggable database salesapppdb including datafiles;

Pluggable database dropped.

创建应用程序PDB
可以在应用程序root容器中执行create pluggable database语句来创建应用程序PDB。创建应用程序pdb与在CDB root中创建PDB都是使用相同的SQL语句。当在应用程序root中执行create pluggable database语句时新创建的PDB为应用程序PDB。SQL语句必须在应用程序root中执行并且对应用程序root中所定义的应用程序数据库有显式依赖性。创建应用程序PDB的操作如下:

1.在SQL*Plus中,确保当前容器为应用程序root

2.执行create pluggable database语句。在应用程序PDB完成创建之后,它处于mounted模式并且状态为NEW。可以通过查询v$pdbs视图的open_mode列来查看应用程序pdb的打开模式,可以通过查询cdb_pdbs或dba_pdbs视图的status列来查看应用程序pdb的状态。对于新创建的应用程序PDB也会创建一个缺省的服务名,服务名与应用程序PDB同名并且可以被用来访问应用程序PDB。

3.以读写模式来打开应用程序PDB

4.为了将新的应用程序PDB集成到应用程序容器必须以读写模式来打开新的应用程序PDB。如果试图以只读模式来打开应用程序PDB将会返回错误信息。在应用程序PDB以读写模式打开后它的状态将变为NORMAL。

5.切换容器为应用程序PDB

6.执行alter pluggable database … sync来同步应用程序PDB。同步使用应用程序PDB来实例化应用程序PDB中的一个或多个应用程序root中的应用程序。

7.关闭应用程序PDB,然后以只读模式打开。

8.备份应用程序PDB。

SQL> alter session set container=salesact;

Session altered.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
SALESACT                                                                                                                         READ WRITE

1 row selected.



SQL> create pluggable database salesapppdb admin user salesapppdbadm identified by "xxzx7817600";

Pluggable database created.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
SALESACT                                                                                                                         READ WRITE
SALESAPPPDB                                                                                                                      MOUNTED

2 rows selected.

SQL> alter pluggable database salesapppdb open read write instances=all;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
SALESACT                                                                                                                         READ WRITE
SALESAPPPDB                                                                                                                      READ WRITE

2 rows selected.

SQL> alter session set container=salesapppdb;

Session altered.


SQL> alter pluggable database application all sync; 

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> alter pluggable database salesapppdb close immediate instances=all;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL>  select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
SALESAPPPDB                                                                                                                      MOUNTED

1 row selected.

SQL> alter pluggable database salesapppdb open read only instances=all;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
SALESAPPPDB                                                                                                                      READ ONLY

1 row selected.

Oracle 12c使用SQL*Plus来创建与删除应用程序容器

可以使用不同方式来创建应用程序容器,比如使用CDB seed,克隆现有的PDB或Non-CDB,插入一个被拔出的PDB,也可以从CDB中删除应用程序容器。

创建应用程序容器
可以使用create pluggable database语句来在CDB中创建应用程序容器。当执行create pluggable database语句时指定as application container子句可以创建一个新的应用程序容器。应用程序容器由应用程序root与用来存储一个或多个应用程序数据的一组应用程序PDB组成。应用程序PDB可以被附加到应用程序root中,并且可以选择快速地创建应用程序seed与简单地创建新的应用程序PDB。应用程序PDB与应用程序root可以共享应用程序公共对象。

有三种类型的应用程序公共对象:
.元数据链接应用程序公共对象存储特定对象的元数据,比如表。 因此容器可以共享有相同结构没有相同数据的应用程序公共对象。

.数据链接应用程序公共对象只在应用程序root中定义一次并且在应用程序PDB的上下文中共享只读对象。

.扩展数据链接应用程序公共对象在应用程序root中存储共享数据但也允许应用程序PDB来将数据添加到对象中。添加的数据是本地数据它对于每个应用程序PDB来说是唯一的。

通过执行creatae pluggable database as application container子句可以创建应用程序容器。也可以使用以下技术来创建应用程序容器:
.使用CDB seed
.克隆现有的PDB或Non-CDB
.迁移PDB
.插入被拔出的PDB

当当前容器是CDB的root并且在执行create pluggable database语句时指定了as application container子句时,将创建应用程序容器。

迁移现有的应用程序为应用程序容器
可以通过使用现有的PDB来创建应用程序容器。当迁移现有应用程序为一个应用程序容器时必须完成额外的任务。要附加的PDB必须包含应用程序数据库对象,包含它们的数据,并且对于应用程序所访问的相关数据库对象必须执行dbms_pdb中的过程。当应用程序公共用户,角色或profiles存放在应用程序root中,对与应用程序相关的数据库对象必须执行dbms_pdb包。在应用程序迁移为应用程序容器后,可以在应用程序容器中创建应用程序PDB,并且可以使用现有的PDB来创建应用程序PDB。

创建应用程序容器的准备
在创建应用程序容器之前必须完达到以下条件:
.CDB必须存在

.CDB必须处于读写模式

.当前容器如果是CDB的root,那么当前用户必须是一个公共用户

.当前用户必须有create pluggable database系统权限

.对于每个应用程序容器必须要决定一个唯一的应用程序容器名字。每个应用程序容器名字必须对于单个CDB中的所有容器来说是唯一的,并且每个应用程序容器名字必须在特定监听所监听的所有CDB范围内是唯一的。应用程序容器名字用来区分CDB中的应用程序容器。应用程序容器名字遵守与服务名一样的规则,它是大小写敏感的。

.如果在使用物理备库的Data Guard配置中创建应用程序容器,那么在创建应用程序容器之前必须完成额外的任务。

.如果使用PDB将现有的应用程序迁移成应用程序容器,那么它必须能够通过克隆PDB来创建应用程序root,迁移PDB到应用程序root中,或者将PDB插入到应用程序root中。

创建应用程序容器
可以执行create pluggable database … as application container语句来创建应用程序容器。创建应用程序容器的操作如下:
1.在SQL*Plus中,确保当前容器为CDB的root。

2.执行create pluggable database … as application container语句。如果需要还可以指定其它子句。在创建应用程序容器后,它处于mounted模式,并且它的状态为NEW。可以查询v$pdbs视图的open_mode列来查看应用程序容器的打开模式。可以通过查询cdb_pdbs或dba_pdbs视图来查看应用程序状态。并且会对应用程序容器创建一个新的缺省服务。这个服务与应用程序容器有相同的名字,并且可以被用来访问应用程序容器。

3.以读写模式来打开新的应用程序容器。为了将新应用程序容器集成到CDB中必须以读写模式来打开新的应用程序容器。如果你试图以只读模式来打开应用程序容器将会返回错误住处。在应用程序容器以读写模式打开后,它的状态将会变为NORMAL。

4.备份应用程序容器

使用CDB Seed来创建应用程序容器
这个例子假设满足以下条件:
.对应用程序容器没有使用存储限制。因此不指定storage子句。

.应用程序容器不创建缺省表空间

.不指定path_prefix子句

.不指定file_name_convert与create_file_dest子句。可以启用OMF或设置pdb_file_name_convert参数。与CDB Seed相关的文件基于OMF配置或参数设置将会被复制到新目录中。

.在目标目录中如果没有与新temp文件同名的文件存储,将会创建新temp文件,因此不指定tempfile reuse子句。

.没有预先定义的Oracle角色需要被授予给PDB_DBA角色。

SQL> create pluggable database salesact as application container admin user salesadm identified by "xxzx";

Pluggable database created.


SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
PDB$SEED                                                                                                                         READ ONLY
JYPDB                                                                                                                            READ WRITE
ORCLPDB                                                                                                                          READ WRITE
SALESACT                                                                                                                         MOUNTED


SQL> alter pluggable database salesact open read write;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
PDB$SEED                                                                                                                         READ ONLY
JYPDB                                                                                                                            READ WRITE
ORCLPDB                                                                                                                          MOUNTED
SALESACT                                                                                                                         READ WRITE

通过克隆本地PDB来创建应用程序容器
这个例子假设满足以下条件:
.不指定path_prefix子句

.指定file_name_convert子句来指定复制文件所存放的目录。在这个例子中,文件从
+DATA/JY/58E7574E7926075EE053AC828A0AA4C9/DATAFILE/与+DATA/JY/58E7574E7926075EE053AC828A0AA4C9/TEMPFILE/目录中复制到+test/jy/hract目录中。不指定create_file_dest子句,并且也不使用OMF或pdb_file_name_conver参数。

.对于应用程序root使用存储限制。因此需要指定storage子句。这里指定属于应用程序root的所有表空间大小不能超过6G。这种存储限制不会应用到附加到应用程序root中的应用程序PDB。

.在目标目录中没有与新temp文件同名的文件存在,所以将会创建新的temp文件。因此不用指定tempfile reuse子句。

SQL> create pluggable database hract as application container from jypdb
  2  file_name_convert = ('+DATA/JY/58E7574E7926075EE053AC828A0AA4C9/DATAFILE/system.297.954436417', '+test/jy/hract/system01.dbf',
  3                       '+DATA/JY/58E7574E7926075EE053AC828A0AA4C9/DATAFILE/sysaux.276.954436419','+test/jy/hract/sysaux01.dbf',
  4                       '+DATA/JY/58E7574E7926075EE053AC828A0AA4C9/DATAFILE/undotbs1.296.954436417','+test/jy/hract/undotsb1.dbf',
  5                       '+DATA/JY/58E7574E7926075EE053AC828A0AA4C9/DATAFILE/undo_2.274.954436487','+test/jy/hract/undo_2.dbf',
  6                       '+DATA/JY/58E7574E7926075EE053AC828A0AA4C9/TEMPFILE/temp.275.954436435','+test/jy/hract/temp01.dbf'
  7                       )
  8  storage (maxsize 6g);

Pluggable database created.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
PDB$SEED                                                                                                                         READ ONLY
HRACT                                                                                                                            MOUNTED
JYPDB                                                                                                                            READ WRITE
SALESACT                                                                                                                         READ WRITE

通过插入被拔出的PDB来创建应用程序容器
这个例子假设满足以下条件:
.新应用程序容器不是基于已经被用来创建PDB或应用程序容器的同一个被拔出的PDB而进行创建。因此不用指定as clone子句。

.不指定path_prefix子句

.xml元数据文件没有精确地描述文件的当前目录,因此需要指定source_file_name_convert或source_file_directory子句。在这个例子中XML文件指示文件在+DATA/JY/DATAFILE/,但实际文件是存储在+DATA/JY/58E7574E7926075EE053AC828A0AA4C9/DATAFILE/与+DATA/JY/58E7574E7926075EE053AC828A0AA4C9/TEMPFILE/目录中,指定source_file_name_convert子句。

.文件存储在正确目录中,因此不指定nocopy子句。

.对应用程序容器使用存储限制,因此指定storage子句。指定应用程序容器的所有表空间大小不超过4G。

.在目标目录中有与新temp文件同名的文件存在,为了创建新的temp文件。因此指定tempfile reuse子句。

SQL> create pluggable database payrollact as application container using '/tts/plug/jypdb.xml'
  2  source_file_name_convert = ('+DATA/JY/58E7574E7926075EE053AC828A0AA4C9/DATAFILE/', '+DATA/JY/58E7574E7926075EE053AC828A0AA4C9/DATAFILE/',
  3                              '+DATA/JY/58E7574E7926075EE053AC828A0AA4C9/TEMPFILE/','+DATA/JY/58E7574E7926075EE053AC828A0AA4C9/TEMPFILE/'
  4                              )
  5  nocopy
  6  storage (maxsize 4g)
  7  tempfile reuse;

Pluggable database created.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
PDB$SEED                                                                                                                         READ ONLY
PAYROLLACT                                                                                                                       MOUNTED

SQL> alter pluggable database payrollact open read write;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
PDB$SEED                                                                                                                         READ ONLY
PAYROLLACT                                                                                                                       READ WRITE

从CDB中拔出应用程序容器
为了拔出应用程序容器必须满足以下条件:
.当前用户必须有sysdba或sysoper管理权限

.应用程序容器必须至少打开过一次

.应用程序容器不能包含任何应用程序PDB

.应用程序容器不能包含任何应用程序Seed

SQL> alter pluggable database payrollact unplug into '/tts/plug/payrollact.xml';

Pluggable database altered.

删除应用程序容器
可以使用drop pluggable database语句来删除应用程序容器。当想要将一个应用程序容器从一个CDB中移动到另一个CDB中或不再需要这个应用程序容器时可以将其删除。

删除应用程序容器与删除PDB是很类似的。当删除应用程序容器时,CDB的控制文件会被修改来删除与被删除应用程序容器相关的信息。与应用程序容器相关的归档重做日志与备份不会被删除,但可以使用RMAN来删除它们。

当删除应用程序容器时,可以使用下面的子句来保留或删除数据文件:
. keep datafiles,缺省值,保留数据文件,即使指定了keep datafiles子句应用程序容器的temp文件仍然会被删除,因为temp文件不再需要。

.including datafiles,删除数据文件。如果应用程序容器是使用snapshot copy子句创建的,那么当删除应用程序容器时必须指定including datafiles子句。

要删除应用程序容器必须满足以下条件:
.应用程序容器必须处于mounted状态或者unplugged状态。

.当前用户必须有sysdba或sysoper管理权限。

.应用程序容器不能包含任何应用程序PDB。

.应用程序容器不能包含任何应用程序Seed。

当删除应用程序容器时保留数据文件

drop pluggable database payrollact keep datafiles;

当删除应用程序容器时并且删除数据文件

drop pluggable database payrollact including  datafiles;

Oracle 12c 使用Non-CDB来创建PDB

可以移动Non-CDB来变为一个PDB。可以使用以下方式来完成这个任务:
.通过克隆Non-CDB来创建PDB。从Oracle 12.1.0.2开始,可以通过克隆Non-CDB来创建PDB。这种方法是创建PDB最简单的一种方法,但它需要从Non-CDB中把文件复制到新目录中。

.使用dbms_pdb包来生成XML元数据文件,XML元数据文件用来描述Non-CDB的数据文件可以用来将其附加到CDB中。这种方法比克隆Non-CDB要执行更多的步骤,但它能让你不用移动Non-CDB的文件来创建PDB。为了使用这种技术 ,Non-CDB必须是Oracle 12C的Non-CDB。如果当前的Non-CDB使用Oracle 12C之前的版本,那么你必须将Non-CDB升级到Oracle 12C。

.使用Oracle Data Pump导出/导入
可以使用Data Pump从Non-CDB中导出数据然后导入到PDB中。当你执行导入时,在用户名后要指定PDB的连接标识符。例如,如果PDB的连接标识符为hrpdb,那么在执行导入进执行以下命令:
imdp username@hrpdb ….如果Non-CDB的版本为11.2.0.3或之后的版本,那么可以使用完全传输导出/导入来移动数据。当将版本为11.2.0.3或之后的11g版本的Non-CDB迁移到Oracle 12C,那么在导出时需要将version参数设置为12.0.0.0.0或更高版本。如果Non-CDB的版本为11.2.0.3之前的版本,那么可以使用传输表空间来移动数据或者执行完全数据库导出\导入。

.使用goldengate复制
可以使用goldengate从Non-CDB中复制数据到PDB中。

对Non-CDB执行dbms_pdb包
可以使用dbms_pdb包来为Non-CDB生成XML元数据文件来将其附加到CDB中。使用dbms_pdb包移动Non-CDB为PDB的操作如下:
1.如果CDB不存在先创建CDB

2.确保Non-CDB处于事务一致状态并将它置于只读状态

[oracle@jytest1 ~]$ export ORACLE_SID=orcl1
[oracle@jytest1 ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 12.2.0.1.0 Production on Thu Sep 7 00:38:31 2017

Copyright (c) 1982, 2016, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup mount
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 4294967296 bytes
Fixed Size                  8628936 bytes
Variable Size            2583692600 bytes
Database Buffers         1694498816 bytes
Redo Buffers                8146944 bytes
Database mounted.
SQL> alter database open read only;

Database altered.


[oracle@jytest2 ~]$ export ORACLE_SID=orcl2
[oracle@jytest2 ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 12.2.0.1.0 Production on Thu Sep 7 00:38:31 2017

Copyright (c) 1982, 2016, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup mount
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 4294967296 bytes
Fixed Size                  8628936 bytes
Variable Size            2583692600 bytes
Database Buffers         1694498816 bytes
Redo Buffers                8146944 bytes
Database mounted.
SQL> alter database open read only;

Database altered.

3.连接到Non-CDB,并执行dbms_pdb.describe过程来创建描述Non-CDB的XML元数据文件。执行该过程的用户必须有sysdba权限。

SQL> exec dbms_pdb.describe(pdb_descr_file=>'/cdb_pdb/orcl.xml');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.


[oracle@jytest2 cdb_pdb]$ ls -lrt
total 8
-rw-r--r-- 1 oracle asmadmin 6963 Sep  7 00:18 orcl.xml

4.执行dbms_pdb.check_plug_compatibility过程来判断是否Non-CDB与目标CDB兼容。当执行这个过程时设置以下参数:
-pdb_descr_file:设置XML元数据文件的完整路径。
-pdb_name:指定新PDB名字,如果这个参数被忽略,那么将使用XML元数据文件中的PDB名字。

SQL> set serveroutput on
  1  declare
  2  compatible constant varchar2(3) :=
  3  case dbms_pdb.check_plug_compatibility(
  4  pdb_descr_file => '/cdb_pdb/orcl.xml',
  5  pdb_name => 'orclpdb')
  6  when true then 'yes'
  7  else 'no'
  8  end;
  9  begin
 10  dbms_output.put_line(compatible);
 11  end;
 12  /
yes

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

如果输出为yes,那么Non-CDB是兼容的,并且可以继续下一步操作。如果输出为no,那么Non-CDB与目标CDB不兼容,并且可以检查pdb_plug_in_violations视图来检查为什么不兼容。所有的违反条目在继续操作之前必须被修复。例如,任何版本或补丁不匹配可以通过执行升级或打补丁来解决。在修复这个违反条目后,再次执行dbms_pdb.check_plug_compatibility来确保Non-CDB与目标CDB兼容。

5.关闭Non-CDB

[grid@jytest1 ~]$ srvctl stop database -db orcl

6.插入Non-CDB

SQL> create pluggable database orclpdb using '/cdb_pdb/orcl.xml'
  2  copy
  3  file_name_convert = ('+DATA/orcl/datafile/', '+data/jy/orclpdb/','+DATA/orcl/tempfile/','+data/jy/orclpdb/');

Pluggable database created.


SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
PDB$SEED                                                                                                                         READ ONLY
JYPDB                                                                                                                            READ WRITE
ORCLPDB                                                                                                                          MOUNTED

ASMCMD [+data/jy/orclpdb] > ls -lt
Type      Redund  Striped  Time             Sys  Name
DATAFILE  UNPROT  COARSE   SEP 07 00:00:00  N    usertbs01.dbf => +DATA/jy/4D913A1436E25EE2E053AB828A0AF7B8/DATAFILE/USERTBS.278.954031319
DATAFILE  UNPROT  COARSE   SEP 07 00:00:00  N    users01.dbf => +DATA/jy/4D913A1436E25EE2E053AB828A0AF7B8/DATAFILE/USERS.302.954031321
DATAFILE  UNPROT  COARSE   SEP 07 00:00:00  N    undotbs01.dbf => +DATA/jy/4D913A1436E25EE2E053AB828A0AF7B8/DATAFILE/UNDOTBS1.273.954031321
TEMPFILE  UNPROT  COARSE   SEP 07 00:00:00  N    temp01.dbf => +DATA/jy/4D913A1436E25EE2E053AB828A0AF7B8/TEMPFILE/TEMPTS1.315.954031465
DATAFILE  UNPROT  COARSE   SEP 07 00:00:00  N    system01.dbf => +DATA/jy/4D913A1436E25EE2E053AB828A0AF7B8/DATAFILE/SYSTEM.303.954031321
DATAFILE  UNPROT  COARSE   SEP 07 00:00:00  N    sysaux01.dbf => +DATA/jy/4D913A1436E25EE2E053AB828A0AF7B8/DATAFILE/SYSAUX.295.954031321

如果这里没有任何错误,那么现在不打开新PDB。

7.执行$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/noncdb_to_pdb.sql脚本,这个脚本必须在第一次打开新PDB之前执行。如果PDB不是由Non-CDB创建而来,那么就不需要执行这个脚本。为了执行noncdb_to_pdb.sql脚本,完成以下操作:
a.访问PDB,当前用户必须有sysdba权限,并且权限必须是公共或本地授予给PDB。最好使用as sysdba进行连接。

b.执行noncdb_to_pdb.sql脚本:

SQL>@$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/noncdb_to_pdb.sql

8.以读写模式打开新PDB

SQL> alter pluggable database orclpdb open read write;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
PDB$SEED                                                                                                                         READ ONLY
JYPDB                                                                                                                            READ WRITE
ORCLPDB                                                                                                                          READ WRITE

9.备份PDB
到此使用Non-CDB来创建PDB的操作就完成了。

Oracle 12c Relocate PDB

在oracle 12.2中可以对pdb执行relocate失踪,下面的例子将介绍对远程CDB中将名为jypdb的PDB进行迁移操作。假设满足以下条件:
.当前用户在被迁移PDB所在的CDB的root容器中有create pluggable database系统权限

.目标CDB连接PDB当前CDB的dblink名为jycdb_link。dblink的创建语句如下:

create public database link jycdb_link connect to c##yyl
identified by "yyl" using 'jy';

PDB的当前CDB中的公共用户c##yyl有sysoper管理权限与create pluggable database系统权限

.不指定path_prefix子句

.不指定file_name_convert与create_file_dest子句。当启用OMF或设置pdb_file_name_convert参数时,基于OMF的配置或参数的设置文件会被移动到新目录。

.对PDB不指定存储限制。因此不指定storage子句

.在目标目录中不存在相同名字的temp文件,那么新的temp文件会被创建。因此不指定tempfile reuse子句。

.连接会被自动从源PDB迁移到迁移后的PDB。因此指定availability max子句。

执行以下语句来将PDB(jypdb)从远程CDB迁移到当前CDB中:
1.在远程CDB中创建公共用户c##yyl

SQL> create user c##yyl identified by "yyl" container=all;

User created.

SQL> grant sysoper,connect,resource,create pluggable database to c##yyl container=all;

Grant succeeded.

2.检查远程CDB是否使用本地undo与归档

SQL> COLUMN property_name FORMAT A30
SQL> COLUMN property_value FORMAT A30
SQL>
SQL> SELECT property_name, property_value
  2  FROM   database_properties
  3  WHERE  property_name = 'LOCAL_UNDO_ENABLED';

PROPERTY_NAME                  PROPERTY_VALUE
------------------------------ ------------------------------
LOCAL_UNDO_ENABLED             TRUE


SQL> SELECT log_mode FROM   v$database;

LOG_MODE
------------
ARCHIVELOG

因为远程CDB使用本地undo与归档,因此不需要将远程数据库设置为只读模式

3.在本地CDB(jy)中创建指定远和CBD(jy)的dblink。连接串中要包含(SERVER=DEDICATED)条目录,否则会收到 “ORA-01031: insufficient privileges”错误

SQL> create public database link jycdb
  2    connect to c##yyl identified by "yyl"
  3    using '(DESCRIPTION =
  4      (ADDRESS_LIST =
  5        (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST =10.138.130.173)(PORT = 1521))
  6      )
  7      (CONNECT_DATA =
  8        (SERVER = DEDICATED)
  9        (SERVICE_NAME =jy)
 10      )
 11    )';

Database link created.


SQL> select * from dual@jycdb;

D
-
X

4.检查本地CDB是否使用了本地undo与归档

SQL> COLUMN property_name FORMAT A30
SQL> COLUMN property_value FORMAT A30
SQL>
SQL> SELECT property_name, property_value
  2  FROM   database_properties
  3  WHERE  property_name = 'LOCAL_UNDO_ENABLED';

PROPERTY_NAME                  PROPERTY_VALUE
------------------------------ ------------------------------
LOCAL_UNDO_ENABLED             TRUE

SQL> SELECT log_mode FROM   v$database;

LOG_MODE
------------
ARCHIVELOG

5.在本地CDB执行下面的语句来克隆可刷新的PDB

SQL> create pluggable database jypdb from jypdb@jycdb relocate availability max;

Pluggable database created.
SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
PDB$SEED                                                                                                                         READ ONLY
JYPDB                                                                                                                            READ WRITE

以read write方式来打开PDB以完成迁移操作

SQL> alter pluggable database jypdb open;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> alter session set container=jypdb;

Session altered.

SQL> set long 200
SQL> set linesize 200
SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

NAME                                                                                                                             OPEN_MODE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
JYPDB                                                                                                                            READ WRITE

删除公共dblink

SQL> drop public database link jycdb;

Database link dropped.

检查远程PDB可以看到已经被删除了

SQL> alter session set container=jypdb;

Session altered.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$pdbs;

no rows selected